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  • 18151.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Bildtgård, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet.
    Changing Union Forms Among Older People in Late Modern Sweden2015In: Aging Families/Changing Families, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on union form in cross-gender relationships in later life, against the background of the transformation of intimacy in late modernity. Results are based on a survey to 60–90 year old Swedes (n=1225; response rate 42%) and European census data. Sweden seems to be the only country where there are more divorced than widowed people in this age group. Almost 1/3 of Swedes, aged 60-90, categorized as “singles” by official Swedish census data on civil status, are in fact living as LATs or cohabitants. In new romantic relationships initiated 60+ the dominant union form is LAT (70%) followed by cohabitation (26%), while marriage is rare (4%). Less than 2 in 10 singles think that is important to be married – and among marrieds less than 8 in 10. Relationship history data shows that although half of the respondents have been married only once, one third (33%) have had 2+ cohabiting unions (marital/non-marital), half (46%) 2+ established relationships, and a majority (66%) 3+ sexual partners. The results indicate that the transformation of intimacy includes older Swedes. Discussion: Should we see older people as a vanguard in the exploration of late modern intimacy, rather than carriers of cultural lag?

  • 18152.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Sociology/Social work.
    Bildtgård, Torbjörn
    Social Work, Stockholm University.
    Diversity and ageing – the meaning of new intimate relationships in later life2012In: : Book of Abstracts, 2012, p. 423-423Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social gerontology and family sociology about intimacy in old age has almost exclusively focused on institutionalized life-long marriages and little research has focused on re-partnering and the forms and meaning of this diversity of new intimate relationships in later life. Framed by Giddens’ transformation of intimacy and Laslett’s theory of the third age, as well as changing social and demographical conditions, this paper will focus on how different forms of new intimate relationships are formative for the experi-ence of ageing.The strategical sampel was diversified according to differ-ent forms of new intimate relationships: dating singles, married, cohabiting and living apart together. Qualitative interviews was used with 28 Swedes, 63–91 years, who have established a new intimate heterosexual relation-ship after 60 or who are dating singles. The results showed the significance of new intimate relations for social integration and for the experience of old age as the “crown of life”. The meaning of new intimate relations in differ-ent intimacy forms are discussed in relation to everyday life in old age, the relational history and relational careers and future perspectives of informal support structures by the relation.

  • 18153.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Bildtgård, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University.
    Diversity and Ageing – the meaning of new intimate relationships in later life2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18154.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Bildtgård, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet.
    Initiation and development of new intimate relationships in later life2016In: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 56, no Suppl. 3, p. 17-18, article id Suppl. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to contemporary family theory late modern relationships are guided less be external norms and more by internal negotiation between relatively equal partners. The purpose of this paper is to study initiation and development of new intimate relationships in later life, with a focus on negotiation and change, based on relationship histories with older Swedes (n=28), who are currently in new late in life cross-gender relationships initiated 60+, or currently dating singles. The results show a paradox: relationship ideals often seem unchangeable in prospect, but actual relationship arrangements appear open and changeable, when described in retrospect. LATs recall having been determined not to initiate any new relationships, cohabitants to retain their own home, remarried informants never to marry again. The analysis focuses the negotiations leading to relationship change. We discuss and question prevailing implicit assumptions about older people’s relationships as non-negotiated and unchangeable.

  • 18155.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Bildtgård, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet.
    New Forms of Intimacy in Later Life in a Culture of Divorce2014In: 8th International Conference on Cultural Gerontology: Programme and Abstracts, 2014, p. 92-92Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on intimacy in later life have mostly focused on institutionalized life-­‐long marriages, and the transition out of such marriages into widowhood. Based on theories about the shift from marriage to divorce culture (Hackstaff), the transformation of intimacy (Giddens) and potentials of the third age (Laslett), this paper focuses on forms of intimacy in later life in late modern Sweden. The results arebased partly on qualitative interviews, including relationship biographies, with 28 Swedes (63–91 years) living in new heterosexual relationships initiated after the age of 60 (marriage, cohabitation, LAT) and dating singles. And partly on a quantitative survey to 60–90 year old Swedes (n=1225). The results show: A great diversity in relationship careers; a preference of LAT and cohabitation (non-­‐visible in official statistics); the importance of intimate relationships for well-­‐being and that new relationships are as important for life-­‐satisfaction as long-­‐lasting ones; that intimate relationships are more important than children for well-­‐being. A central analytical finding was the importance of time as an organizing frame for new intimate relationships in later life: the paradox of having a lot of free time in the third age, but a restricted life time left. Results will be discussed in relation to the theorizing frames mentioned above, especially new practices for intimacy in a culture of divorce. Cohort replacement is only one explanation for changing practices and the period effect seems to be as important.

  • 18156.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Bildtgård, Torbjörn
    University of Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Partner-age in late life unions - ideals vs realities2016In: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 732-732, article id Suppl. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Age homo/heterogamy in romantic unions is given little attention in current gerontological research. Still partner age-differences are important for men’s and women’s relationship opportunities. This paper studies actual partner-age (age-difference) in cross-gendered unions, and ideal partner-age both for singles and respondents in unions. The study was carried out by a survey to 60–90 year old Swedes, currently either singles or in a cross-gender relationship (married, cohabiting, LAT) (n=1225). Unions follow a traditionally gendered age structure: 56% of men, but only 16% of women have a younger partner. This pattern is more pronounced: in first unions (p<.001) and unions initiated before 1970 (p<.01). For respondents in unions actual partner-age showed no significant correlation with union form or urbanity (modernity-hypothesis), and not with education or income (power-hypothesis). For respondents in unions Ideal Partner-Age correlates strongly (p<.001; R2=0,76) with actual partner-age (ideal slightly younger). Among single respondents, almost all (92%) single men and half of the single women (47%) prefer a younger partner (8,9 years younger on average for men; 2,2 for women). The proportion preferring a younger partner increases by age, leading to increasingly incompatible age ideals. Results will be discussed in relation to life-course theory; gender and power; the deinstitutionalization hypothesis.

  • 18157.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Bildtgård, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet.
    Sexual activity and norms among older Swedes: a life course perspective2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been argued that in late modernity sex has escaped its reproductive cage and people form pure relationships, based on mutual satisfaction. Ironically, although older people are per definition non-reproductive, they have often been neglected in studies on sexuality. In this paper we present results from 1) a qualitative interview study with a strategic sample of 28 63–91 year old Swedes currently dating or in a heterosexual relationship (married, cohabiting, LAT) initiated 60+ and 2) a quantitative survey including answers from 1225 60–90 year old Swedes. The interviews revealed a clear normative change, from a cultural context that condemned extra-marital sex in young adulthood to a context which encourages sexual relationships but not marriage in later life. All had experienced the sexual liberation of the 1960s, and today, these liberal attitudes seem to encompass later life. Today, an active sex-life was regarded as important for a good relationship and sexual attraction was seen as a precondition for new relationships. Many informants had interpreted sexual decline in former relationships as “natural” and age-related, but re-discovered sexuality with their new partner. In the survey, a majority (93 %) had had their sexual debut before marriage (despite the restrictive norms). Half or the respondents have had ≥ 4 more sexual partners, and one in five ≥ 10. Sexual activity correlated negatively with relationship length. It has often been argued in gerontology that sexual values and practices will become more liberal in the future by cohort replacement. Our data indicates that “the future might already be here”.

  • 18158.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Bildtgård, Torbjörn
    Social Work, Stockholm University.
    The impact of new intimate relationships in later life on life satisfaction2013In: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 53, no Supplement 1, p. 61-61Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18159.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Bildtgård, Torbjörn
    Social Work, Stockholm University.
    The impact of new intimate relationships in later life on social and filial relationships.2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18160.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Bildtgård, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet.
    The importance of intimate relationships for well-being in later life2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on intimacy in later life have mostly focused on institutionalized life-long marriages, and the transition out of such marriages into widowhood. Based on theories about the shift from marriage to divorce culture (Hackstaff), the transformation of intimacy (Giddens) and potentials of the third age (Laslett), this paper focuses on forms of intimacy in later life in late modern Sweden. The results are based partly on qualitative interviews, including relationship biographies, with 28 Swedes (63–91 years) living in new relationships initiated after the age of 60 (marriage, cohabitation, LAT) and dating singles. And partly on a quantitative survey to 60–90 year old Swedes (n=1225). The results show: A great diversity in relationship careers; a preference of LAT and cohabitation (non-visible in official statistics); the importance of intimate relationships for well-being and that new relationships are as important for life-satisfaction as long-lasting ones; that intimate relationships are more important than children for well-being. A central analytical finding was the importance of time as an organizing frame for new intimate relationships in later life: the paradox of having a lot of free time in the third age, but a restricted life time left. Results will be discussed in relation to the theorizing frames mentioned above, especially new practices for intimacy in a culture of divorce. Cohort replacement is only one explanation for changing practices and attitudes to new intimate relationships in later life and the period effect seems to be as important.

  • 18161.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Bildtgård, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet.
    Time as a structuring condition for new intimate relationships in later life: A qualitative study of elderly Swedes2013In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging: Abstract Book, Springer, 2013, Vol. 17, Suppl. 1, p. 109-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Social gerontology about intimacy in old age has almost exclusively focused on institutionalized life-long marriages. However, mobility in and out of intimate relationships has become more common in late modern societies also in later life. In this paper the research questions are: What characterizes the formation of new intimate relationships in later life? Are there any specific, more or less universal, conditions that separate them from relationships in earlier life phases?

    Method: Qualitative interviews were used with a strategical sample of 28 6-?91 year old Swedes, who have established a new intimate heterosexual relationship after the age of 60 or who are dating.

    Results: The results showed time as constituting a central structuring condition for new intimate relationships in later life. In the results three aspects of time: Available free time, Lived time and Remaining time ? which all have a constituting and formative power on new late in life relationships are discussed in relation to theories of late modernity and the Third Age and in relation to changing demographical conditions.

    Conclusion: The concluding discussion will be about the time theoretical frame as a model for understanding experiences of ageing.

  • 18162.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Bildtgård, Torbjörn
    Institutionen för socialt arbete, Socialhögskolan, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Andersson, Lars
    Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier (ISV), NISAL, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sverige.
    Skyddar en parrelation på äldre dar mot ensamhet?2016In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 19-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to study the importance of intimate relationships as protection from loneliness in later life. We base ourselves on a survey to Swedes aged 60–90 (n=1 225) focusing on intimate relationships. The analysis considers neglected issues in ageing research on loneliness: the importance of union form, the importance of looking at relationship dissolution in terms of both widowhood and divorce, and the importance of new late life unions (a gains perspective). We use two theoretical perspectives: the discrepancy model (realities vs. ideals), and the protection hypothesis, where the partner is generally the first and most important source of support in everyday life. The results show that a partner protects against loneliness and that union form matters: marriage provides the best protection, followed by cohabitation and Living Apart Together (LAT). Feelings of loneliness decrease over time following a union dissolution – and, for men, more rapidly after separation than widowhood. The more the ideal union form differs from one’s actual union form, the more common are feelings of loneliness. Initiating a new relationship after a union dissolution protects against loneliness. The article discusses the importance of using union form instead of civil status as relationship indicators in studies of older people in late modern Sweden, and of including separation/divorce as indicators of union dissolution besides widowhood. It also stresses the importance of looking at later life not only from a loss – but also from a gains – perspective.

  • 18163.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska instutionen.
    Pohjolainen, Pertti
    Age institute, Helsinki.
    Ruoppila, Isto
    Psykologiska institutionen, Jyväskylä universitet, FI.
    Experiencing ageing – Kokemuksellinen vanheneminen – Att uppleva åldrandet1994 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I boken Att uppleva åldrandet ges en mångsidig bild av aktuell social- och psykogerontologisk forskning. Kända forskare från USA, Skandinavien och Finland analyserar i olika artiklar centrala temata som: uppfattningen av ålderdomen genom historien, psykogerontologins historia och utveckling, kreativitet under livsloppet, attityder till åldrandet och livslörändrdingar, upplevelser av hälsa och sjukdom samt förhållandet och växelverkan mellan generationerna. Artiklarna förmedlar också ny kunskap om äldrebefolkningen i Finland. Boken riktar sig speciellt till olika yrkesgrupper som är intresserade av åldrandet, samt till studerande i social- och vårdvetenskap.

  • 18164.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala univeristet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Ruth, Jan-Erik
    Age institute, Helsinki FI.
    Alter und Altern in der Lebensge­schichte älterer Finnen1995In: Altwerden in einer alternden Gesellschaft:: Kontinuität und Krisen in biographischen Verläufen / [ed] Mader, W., Opladen: Leske & Budrich , 1995, p. 155-170Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18165.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska instutionen.
    Ruth, Jan-Erik
    Age institute, Helsinki FI.
    Hyvä vanhuus – kaikesta huoli­mat­ta [En god ålderdom – trots allt]1994In: Muuttuva vanhuus [Ålderdom i förän­dring] / [ed] Uutela, A. & Ruth, J.-E., Helsinki: Gaudeamus , 1994, 1, p. 445-463Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18166.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Ruth, Jan-Erik
    Age institute, Helsinki FI.
    Livsloppsformer och åldrande i Finland1993In: Livslöp blant gamle i Norden / [ed] Kari Waerness, Jan-Erik Ruth & Lars Tornstam, Oslo: Norsk gerontologisk institutt , 1993, p. 141-198Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18167.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala univeristet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Ruth, Jan-Erik
    Age institute, Helsinki FI.
    Old age as reflected in the life stories of elderly Finns1995In: Images of aging in Western so­cieties / [ed] Hummel, C. & Lalive d'Epinay, C.J., Geneva: Centre for Interdisciplinary Gerontolology, University of Geneva , 1995, 1, p. 121-140Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18168.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    Centrum för forskning och utbildning i äldreomsorgen, Kuntokalio, Finland.
    Ruth, Jan-Erik
    Age institute, Helsinki FI.
    Rädsla och Otrygghet Bland Äldre1987In: Gerontologia, ISSN 0784-0039, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 55-62Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18169.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Dept Sociol.
    Tornstam, Lars
    Sociologiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Attitudes towards embodied old age among Swedes2003In: The International Journal of Aging & Human Development, ISSN 0091-4150, E-ISSN 1541-3535, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 133-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Messages in the consumer culture are often youth oriented, aiming at the prevention of the bodily decay associated with biological ageing. In gerontological discourses, this has been hypothesised to generate negative attitudes towards embodied ageing and old age. Studies about general attitudes towards old age show that younger respondents have more negative attitudes than do older respondents, and gerontological discourses also hypothesise a gendered ageism, with especially negative attitudes towards elderly women. The empirical study of embodied ageing among 1,250 Swedes aged 20-85 years contradicts these hypotheses. The results show rather positive attitudes towards embodied old age, especially among young and middle-aged respondents. Neither do the results unequivocally confirm the hypothesis of gendered ageism, which predicts considerably more negative attitudes towards old women than towards old men. One interpretation of the results is that, counter to many hypotheses, the consumer culture, with its new opportunities and roles for old people, may positively affect these attitudes.

  • 18170.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Tornstam, Lars
    Sociologiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Body images among men and women of different ages1999In: Ageing & Society, ISSN 0144-686X, E-ISSN 1469-1779, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 629-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The exterior territories, or surfaces, of the body have become symbols of the self in late modernity. People are increasingly overwhelmed with messages of youthful ideals: how to stay young or how to get old without signs of ageing. However, studies of the effects of these images on people’s own experiences as they grow older seem to be lacking. The present paper reports an empirical study which focuses on body image for men and women of different ages. Four hypotheses, derived from social gerontological theories, are developed and tested against data: the female beauty hypothesis, the double marginality hypothesis, the ageing mask hypothesis and the ageless self hypothesis. The survey, taken by 2,002 Swedes, reveals a response pattern with basically positive body images and, for women, increasingly positive with age. The results are, thus, in sharp contrast to the gerontophobic messages from consumer culture as well as to some gerontological theories

  • 18171.
    Öberg, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala university, Department of Sociology.
    Tornstam, Lars
    Sociologiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
     Youthfulness and Fitness Identity Ideals for All Ages?2001In: Journal of Aging and Identity, ISSN 1087-3732, E-ISSN 1573-3491, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 15-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In consumer society the body, one focus for a youthful consumption, is a symbol of identity, the ‘true presentation’ of who one really is. We have witnessed new images for elderly people, especially the Young-Old. This descriptive study focuses on the importance of youthfulness and fitness in different among Swedes in different ages. The empirical study among 1.250 Swedes in the age 20-85 show youthfulness and fitness as uni-age phenomena. More than 7 out of 10 report lower ‘subjective ages’ (Feel-Age, Ideal-Age and Look-Age) than their chronological age. Fitness activities and slenderness ideals seem to be important independent of age group. This could, on one hand, be interpreted as a changing life course with new, more ‘positive’ images of old age. On the other hand it could be interpreted as a new, more subtle form of ageism.

  • 18172.
    Öborn, Helena
    et al.
    Division of Pediatrics, Department of Clinical Science, Technology and Intervention, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wettergren, Lena
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Herthelius, Maria
    Division of Pediatrics, Department of Clinical Science, Technology and Intervention, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forinder, Ulla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Social Work, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Associations between lower urinary tract dysfunction and health-related quality of life in children with chronic kidney disease2016In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 105, no 8, p. 959-966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim Little is known about the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated LUTD and other possible predictors of impaired HRQoL in children with conservatively treated moderate to severe CKD or with a kidney transplant.

    Methods All 64 children with CKD or a kidney transplant treated at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, between June 2011 and December 2012 were approached and 59 children aged 8-18 were enrolled in the study. Lower urinary tract function was evaluated with voiding history, frequency and volume chart, uroflowmetry and post void ultrasound measurements. Self-reported HRQoL was assessed with validated generic instruments.

    Results The HRQoL of the study cohort was as good as the general paediatric population, apart from the physical and psychological well-being dimensions, and was no different to children with other chronic conditions. Urinary incontinence, but not LUTD in general, was associated with impaired HRQoL, as was having a kidney transplant and being female in some dimensions.

    Conclusion LUTD was common in children with CKD or a kidney transplant but did not affect their general HRQoL. Predictors of impaired HRQoL included incontinence, having had a kidney transplant and being female.

  • 18173.
    Ödeving, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Geometri i förskolan2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18174.
    Ödlund, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Berg, Lotta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Omvårdnad vid höftfraktur2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Patienter med höftfraktur blir allt fler i takt med att medelåldern ökar. Det är en stor och resurskrävande patientgrupp. De har under en längre tid varit underprioriterade vilket har resulterat i långa väntetider till operation.

    Syfte:

    Syftet var att beskriva om det fanns några fördelar att arbeta med höftspår vid höftfrakturer samt att beskriva urvalet av de använda vetenskapliga artiklarna.

    Metod:

    Deskriptiv litteraturstudie med tretton vetenskapliga artiklar med kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats. Likheter och olikheter i artiklarnas resultat har kategoriserats och sammanställts till fem olika teman.

    Huvudresultat:

    Resultatet visade att det fanns fördelar med att arbeta med omhändertagande via höftspår, detta resulterade i kortare väntetid till operation samt färre komplikationer. Dessa patienter som omhändertogs via höftspår hade även en kortare vårdtid. Risken för mortalitet påverkades inte nämnvärt vid höftspår kontra konventionell vård vid höftfraktur.

    Slutsats:

    I kategorien förkortad tid till operation samt kortare vårdtid kan man se stora positiva skillnader efter införandet av höftspår, i minskade postoperativa komplikationer en viss förbättring. I kategorin minskad risk för dödlighet ses ingen statistisktsignifikant skillnad. Riktlinjerna kring detta höftspår har påverkat omvårdnaden i en positiv riktning. Dessa patienter omhändertas nu med en snabbare och bättre rutin. Det har inte upptäckts några nackdelar med att arbeta med höftspår.

  • 18175.
    Ödman, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Hur påverkas barn av stress och hur kan stress motverkas i förskolan?2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen var att undersöka om det förekommer stress bland barnen i förskolan, hur den i så fall yttrar sig samt hur personalen vid förskolorna jobbar för att motverka eventuell stress bland barnen. Muntliga intervjuer användes som undersöknings metod med diktafon som hjälpmedel. Åtta förskollärare har blivit intervjuade och intervjuerna har utförts i två olika kommuner. Resultatet visade att det förekommer många olika tecken på stress bland barnen och att både pedagoger och föräldrar till stor del bidrar till stressen.

  • 18176.
    Ödẻn, Віrgіt
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap.
    Vad är viktigt i livet?: några ungdomars värderingar1999Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fyrtioen nittonåriga elever vid Barn- och fritidsprogrammet, årskurs tre har svarat på frågan: Om du blir vår nya ledare, vilka viktiga levnadsregler ska vi ha om vårt gemensamma samhälle skall fungera? Svaren varierade men fem levnadsregler var viktigare än andra, nämligen:

    • Man ska respektera andra människor.
    • Man ska vara den man är.
    • Du ska inte ljuga.
    • Man ska inte stjäla.
    • Du ska inte vara otrogen.

    Sju personer, elever i årskurs tre vid samma gymnasieprogram men i en senare årskull, har tolkat undersökningens resultat. Samtliga anser det troligt att nittonåringarna tycker detta. Att respektera andra, är den viktigaste levnadsregeln enligt ungdomarna. Denna regel utgör även en viktig grund för de övriga levnadsreglerna.

    Enligt en teori av Ronald Inglehart, amerikansk sociolog, tenderar de värderingar man fått i ungdomsåren att finnas kvar i vuxenlivet. Jag har fått svar på vilka värderingar fyrtioen nittonåriga elever tycker är viktiga idag och enligt Ingleharts teori kan de även vara morgondagens.

  • 18177.
    Ögren, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Cykla i stadsmiljö: “Vinsten för individen av att cykla”2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gävle municipality has a goal to increase cycling in Gävle. In the year 2025, the proportion of journeys less than four kilometers should be at 60%, a survey from 2012 showed that the proportion were only 24% (Atterbrand et al, 2012). According to the same survey, it was found that the municipality of Gävle will not achieve their goals about the proportion of short trips undertaken by bicycle since the number has not increased since 2006 (Indebetou et al, 2012).

    The essay aims to develop a concept that will encourage more people to choose the bicycle over other means of transport. The main goal is to find out how the interest in cycling in urban environments can be increased.

    The work has been limited to focusing to a local level, but the idea is that the results can be used to create similar products to all urban environments.

    Methods that have been used to get to the final result are interviews with individuals and with people working for the municipality of Gävle. The work also include a study of different scientific articles, an analysis to decide functions of the resulting concept and market research to determent what would be necessary to the results.

    For the research, official material from municipality of Gävle is used, as well as scientific articles and interviews. The facts are used to confirm reasons why people should choose to bike over other modes of transport as well as to show that Gävle has potential as a cycling city.

    The facts that are mentioned in the research are later on used to make different design proposals. Based on the interviews made, three bigger needs are presented as a way to select a design proposal to develop further. The result is presented at the end in the form of an app to smartphones.

    The appearance and features for the app that has been produced occurred after making a market research where two apps for smartphones were investigated, and also a feature to cyclists who the municipality of Gävle offers via their website to offer a custom wayfinding just for cyclists. The apps that were investigated is called RunKeeper and Google Maps. RunKeeper is a motivational app to increase interest in the exercise. Google Maps is an app that uses GPS to give directions for motorists, cyclists and pedestrians.

    The market investigation provided the basis for the final app dubbed Cyclum. Cyculm give tips on places to bike to show bike lanes in the city and can offer the cyclist wayfinding between two points that the user specifies. By using Cyclum cyclist can collect statistics about their bicycle use, a way to motivate to bike more.

  • 18178.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Biomechanical methods and error analysis related to chronic musculoskeletal pain2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Spinal pain is one of humanity’s most frequent complaints with high costs for the individual and society, and is commonly related to spinal disorders. There are many origins behind these disorders e.g., trauma, disc hernia or of other organic origins. However, for many of the disorders, the origin is not known. Thus, more knowledge is needed about how pain affects the neck and neural function in pain affected regions. The purpose of this dissertation was to improve the medical examination of patients suffering from chronic whiplash-associated disorders or other pain related neck-disorders.

    Methods A new assessment tool for objective movement analysis was developed. In addition, basic aspects of proprioceptive information transmission, which can be of relevance for muscular tension and pain, are investigated by studying the coding of populations of different types of sensory afferents by using a new spike sorting method. Both experiments in animal models and humans were studied to accomplish the goals of this dissertation. Four cats where were studied in acute animal experiments. Mixed ensembles of afferents were recorded from L7-S1 dorsal root filaments when mechanical stimulating the innervated muscle. A real-time spike sorting method was developed to sort units in a multi-unit recording. The quantification of population coding was performed using a method based on principal component analysis. In the human studies, 3D neck movement data were collected from 59 subjects with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and 56 control subjects. Neck movement patterns were identified by processing movement data into parameters describing the rotation of the head for each subject. Classification of neck movement patterns was performed using a neural network using processed collected data as input. Finally, the effect of marker position error on the estimated rotation of the head was evaluated by computer simulations.

    Results Animal experiments showed that mixed ensembles of different types of afferents discriminated better between different muscle stimuli than ensembles of single types of these afferents. All kinds of ensembles showed an increase in discriminative ability with increased ensemble size. It is hypothesized that the main reason for the greater discriminative ability might be the variation in sensitivity tuning among the individual afferents of the mixed ensemble will be larger than that for ensembles of only one type of afferent. In the human studies, the neural networks had a predictivity of 0.89, a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.88 when discriminating between control and WAD subjects. Also, a systematic error along the radial axis of the rigid body added to a single marker had no affect on the estimated rotation of the head.

    Conclusion The developed spike sorting method, using neural networks, was suitable for sorting a multiunit recording into single units when performing neurophysiological experiments. Also, it was shown that neck movement analysis combined with a neural network could build the basis of a decision support system for classifying suspected WAD or other pain related neck-disorders.

  • 18179.
    Öhlander Andersson, Lina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    English Language Learning: Student's Perception on Their Own Language Learning2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a qualitative study, which aims at looking closer into how eight students look upon their own English perceiving skills. A qualitative interview method was used to interview eight students in upper secondary school. The participants were four girls and four boys. The result from the interviews have been presented under three different headings, which are as follows: Motivation, Classroom and Acquisition. A lot of studies have been done on the subject of language learning and it has resulted in many theories, and the ones that seemed relevant for this study have been brought up and connected to the answers the students gave. Most of the students felt motivated to learn English and the main reason was their future job plans. In the classroom, the participants thought that the teacher's behaviour and attitude towards the English subject was the most important factor to motivate them. The interview results showed that the student's thought that the best way to learn English was through media, foremost by speaking and writing with their friends on the computer. Those answers can be connected to something that the Russian psychologist Lev S. Vygotskij presents with the socio-cultural theory, were he promotes the idea that the best way to learn a new language is to interact with other people.

  • 18180.
    Öhlander, Josefine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Nilsson, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    "kränkningar ja, mobbning njaa...": om kränkande behandling och mobbnings existens i förskolan2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kränkande behandling och mobbning är ett samhällsfenomen; där det finns människor finns det även kränkande behandling och mobbning. Vad som är kränkande behandling är upp till personen som blir utsatt att avgöra och upprepade kränkningar inom samma sociala forum benämns som mobbning. Forskning har visat att det råder en viss osäkerhet och delade meningar huruvida både kränkande behandling och mobbning kan förekomma inom förskolans verksamhet. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vad biträdande förskolechefer har för erfarenhet av mobbning och kränkande behandling relaterat till förskolan samt om de arbetar med att förebygga mobbning och kränkande behandling på förskolan. Ett delsyfte är att undersöka hur kränkande behandling och mobbning kan yttra sig på förskolan samt kartlägga hur den lagstadgade handlingsplanen ser ut och hur de använder sig av den i sitt förebyggande arbete mot mobbning och kränkande behandling. Metoden som använts är kvalitativa intervjuer eftersom det är människors uppfattningar om vad kränkande behandling och mobbning innebär som har undersökts. Frågorna som ställdes under intervjuerna var till störst del öppna frågor där intervjupersonerna fick svara genom att beskriva och ge exempel. Resultatet visar att det råder delade meningar och en viss otydlighet om vad kränkande behandling och mobbning innebär för förskolan, men resultatet visar även att man som biträdande förskolechef tar frågan på allvar och arbetar aktivt med detta. I diskussion framkommer det att mobbning är ett komplext begrepp samt att kränkande behandling är betydligt lättare att definiera och blir därmed tydligare och lättare att relatera till. Frågan om mobbnings vara eller inte vara har också uppkommit; kan man helt enkelt utesluta mobbning som ord i förskola och skola och istället lägga all fokus på kränkande behandling?

     

    Nyckelord: Preschool, Kindergarten, Relationships, Bullying, Peer Relationships

     

  • 18181.
    Öhlund, Lennart S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Aalesund University College, Aalesund, Norway .
    Grönbladh, Leif
    Uppsala University, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Letter to the Editor Regarding "Exiting Prostitution: An Integrated Model," by L. M. Baker, R. L. Dalla, & C. Williamson, Violence Against Women, 16, 579-6002012In: Violence against Women, ISSN 1077-8012, E-ISSN 1552-8448, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 371-372Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18182.
    Öhlund, Lennart S
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Grönbladh, Leif
    Uppsala universitet.
    Patterns of deviance career in the history of female methadone clients: an exploratory study2009In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to describe the drug career of 71 severely opioid-dependent women who had a history of selling sex and were enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, from medical records and reports from social agencies and correctional institutions. The sequential pattern could be described in the following order: initiation of the first drug of abuse, opioid onset, initiation of selling sex, first non-methadone treatment episode, first sentence and, finally, methadone maintenance treatment. There were significant age differences and correlations between most of the events. The main correlation (r = 0.70) was the one between debut of opioid use and selling sex, which was confirmed in a stepwise multiple regression analysis. In addition, a history of running away from home advanced the age at which the women started selling sex for those with an onset of opioid use at an older age than the mean of 18.4 years.

  • 18183.
    Öhlund, Lennart S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Gunne, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The treatment goal in maintenance treatment of heroin addiction ought to be more than retention2013In: Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems, ISSN 1592-1638, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 53-56Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18184.
    Öhlund, Nina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Ledarskap & mångfald: Personlighetens påverkan på konflikter i mångkulturella organisationer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Date: 2018 – May

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to generate understanding for the correlation between the personality of a manager and the ability to manage relationship conflicts and task oriented conflicts in multicultural organizations. With the Big Five Model as a starting point the intention is to answer which of the manager personality factors that can have an influence on conflicts that arises in multi- cultural environments. 

    Method: From a qualitative research approach the information is gathered through 10 semi structured interviews. All of the respondents in the study have a long experience of working in multicultural organizations. The analysis has been conducted by identifying specific topics and the result of that is then presented accordingly.  

    Result & Conclusions: The study shows the correlation between manager personality and the events occurring in conflicts related to diversity. Also shown is that there are specific personality factors that has a significant impact on both relationship- and task oriented conflicts as well as there are factors that only relates to each of these conflict types.   

    Contribution of the thesis: The essay brings a deeper understanding to the relationship that exists between management, diversity and conflicts. From scientific point of view it can therefore be used as a platform for research within management, diversity and conflict management. From an organizational perspective it provides more knowledge regarding what the requirements are when managing multicultural teams and what to expect while doing so.

    Suggestions for future research: The study shows that specific manager characteristics have impact on conflicts. Therefore it would be valuable to further verify which of these that is better suited to handle different types of conflicts.  

  • 18185.
    Öhman, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Jogin, Jennie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans omvårdnadserfarenheter av patienter med en strokediagnos2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Stroke tillhör en av våra största folksjukdomar och förblir en av de sjukdomar som kräver de högsta dödsantalen och ger allvarliga följder med omfattande funktionsnedsättningar. Följderna efter en stroke varierar beroende av vart och med vilken omfattning skadan orsakat, vilket ger en varierande symptombild med olika grader av funktionsnedsättningar. Detta gör omvårdnaden av en strokepatient till komplex som ställer höga krav på en individuellt anpassad vårdplan med anpassade professioner som omger patienten.

     

    Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att undersöka sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att vårda patienter med en strokediagnos. 

     

    Metod En beskrivande litteraturstudie som baserats på resultatet av 10 kvalitativa och 3 kvantitativa artiklar.

     

    Huvudresultat Det framkommer att sjuksköterskan har en viktig uppgift i att arbeta kliniskt och nära patienten men att det på grund av brist på resurser och utbildning är svårt att ge en tillfredställande omvårdnad. Sjuksköterskans position bland andra professioner upplevs inte heller som självklar och behöver vara väldefinierad för att kunna säkerställa att patientens vård är av hög kvalitet. Det framkommer även att sjuksköterskan i sin omvårdnad behöver involvera patienten mer i kommunikationen genom att lära känna personen bakom patienten för att på så vis förbättra återhämtningen efter en stroke.

     

    Slutsats Sjuksköterskan utgör en nyckelroll vid omvårdnaden av strokepatienten. Studier visar dock att det saknas kunskap, utbildning och förståelse från både organisation och sjuksköterskor vilket på flera sätt sänker patientens vårdkvalitet.

  • 18186.
    Öhman, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics. 19881121-1542.
    Lärares syn och attityd på användandet av digitala verktyg inom matematikämnet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18187.
    Öhman, Louisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hur sjuksköterskor kan bidra till följsamhet av basala hygienrutiner inom kommunal vård och omsorg2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Basic hygiene is an important measure to prevent healthcare associated infections, save patients’ lives, and reduce economic costs for health care. Healthcare associated infections are a threat to patient safety. In community care persons who are the care takers are a risk group and nurses must make sure that basic hygiene procedures are followed.

    Method: Literature studies with descriptive design, article search in databases Cinahl and PubMed. The results found are based on twelve chosen articles.

    Aim: To describe factors related to adherence to basic hygiene and how nurses in community care can help to improve compliance with these procedures.

    Results: In the nursing staff and leadership in health care interest in and the understanding of basic hygiene is described as being of most importance. Lack of knowledge of the meaning of patient care cleanliness, negative attitudes and non-existing availability of necessary tools and heavy workload had a negative impact. Intensified education and making sure that equipment is available as well as the application of standardized methods, were found to be prerequisite for adherence to basic hygiene routines.

    Conclusion: Nurses can contribute to improved adherence to basic hygiene routines by promoting education, positive attitudes, a positive adaption of the physical environment, strategic structuring of the workload, and standardized methods, applying basic hygiene routines, being part of and promoting increased interaction in nursing care. Suggestions for future studies is to implement web-based courses, updating courses and training in basic hygiene routines in the workplace. That may increase knowledge, understanding and awareness of the application of basic hygiene routines hence leading to improved nursing care and enhancing patient safety.

  • 18188.
    Öhman, Malin
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Ledarskap på Åland: - en kvinno-mansdominerad arbetsplats2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte:

    Denna studie handlar om kvinnor och män som ledare samt deras förutsättningar på deras respektive företag. Syfte med detta arbete är att lyfta fram hur de båda könen kvinna och man har ställt sig gällande kvinnligt respektive manligt ledarskap inom näringslivet på Åland. Går det att utläsa olikheter och/eller likheter om hur kvinnor och män upplever sitt ledarskap? På vilket sätt har de båda könen kvinna/man ställt sig till om det finns kvinnligt respektive manligt ledarskap?

    Metod:

    Jag har valt att studera två privata företag, ett kvinnodominerat och ett mansdominerat genom att intervjua ledarna samt deras anställda som fick delta i en enkätundersökning. I mitt arbete likställer jag orden chef och ledare. Begreppet ledare utgör således enbart en synonym för ordet chef.

    Resultat & slutsats:

    Min slutsats i detta arbete är att båda ledarna var positiva till manligt och kvinnligt ledarskap. Jag anser att kvinnor och män skiljer sig åt som ledare. Kvinnor i hög grad behöver diskutera, de förväntar sig att man lyssnar och visar att man känner empati. Män redogör för problemet, gör en analys och frågar efter åsikter. Enligt resultatet hindras kvinnorna hindras från en karriär på grund av hushåll och barn, eftersom en del män anser att kvinnan inte är kvalificerad för rollen som ledare.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning:

    Hur ska samhället tolerera kvinnligt ledarskap på ett mera effektivt sätt samt vilka tillvägagångssätt bör man tillämpa för att kvinnan ska bli högre i samhällets rang?

    Arbetets bidrag:

    Denna studie bidrar till ny kunskap över vad ledarskap i en könsdominerad arbetsplats på Åland innebär.

  • 18189.
    Öhman, Michaela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Östergrens, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att möta patienter med psykossjukdom inom den somatiska vården: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every year approximately 2000 people in Sweden fall ill to some kind of psychotic disorder. Psychotic disorders are often associated with prejudice and stigma. Research has shown a connection between the expected external stigma, internal stigma and the recovery of patients with a psychotic disorder. It has also been described that patients with a psychotic disorder has received insufficient care due to their psychiatric illness.    

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how nurses experience the encounter with patients that are suffering from a psychotic disorder within the somatic inpatient and outpatient care.

    Method: A descriptive literature study based on 5 qualitative and 5 quantitative scientific articles. The databases that was used to obtain articles was PubMed and Cinahl.   

    Main result: It appeared that there is a substantial lack of knowledge regarding psychotic disorders within the somatic care. Nurses often experienced feelings of fear, tension and insecurity, which made the encounter with these patients problematic. Limitations such as time constraints contributed to unfavourable conditions in the care of patients with a psychotic disorder.   

    Conclusion: Stigma, lack of knowledge and deficiencies in the care environment could make the care that patients with a psychotic disorder receive inadequate. Therefore, it is important that nurses in the somatic inpatient and outpatient care become aware of their own preconceptions and attitudes towards these patients, and that nurses get access to additional knowledge on this topic. The somatic units should also try to make improvements in the care environment.

  • 18190.
    Öhman, Peter
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Svanberg, Jan
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Påverkar en identifiering med klienterna revisorers oberoende?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Olika hot mot revisorers oberoende har uppmärksammats i tidigare forskning. Ett av dessa hot har väckt CERs och i synnerhet Peter Öhmans och Jan Svanbergs intresse. Det är i vilken grad oberoendet påverkas av om revisorerna identifierar sig med sina klienter. Den genomförda studien visar att de revisorer som identifierar sig relativt mer med sina klienter har större sannolikhet att såväl acceptera klientföretagens redovisning som att begå kvalitetsförsämrande handlingar. Detta verkar inte kunna motverkas av om revisorerna identifierar sig med revisorsprofessionens kärnvärden. Forskningsresultaten har tidigare publicerats i den internationella tidskriftsartikeln “Auditors’ identification with their clients: Effects on audit quality” (Svanberg och Öhman, 2015).

  • 18191.
    Öhman, Peter
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Svanberg, Jan
    Mittuniversitetet; Högskolan Dalarna.
    Tidspress, etisk kultur och revisionskvalitet2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den tidspress som revisorer kan uppleva har visat sig vara en bidragande orsak till att vissa revisionsuppdrag brister i kvalitet. Denna studie, gjord av Peter Öhman och Jan Svanberg vid CER, visar att revisionsbyråernas etiska kulturer har större betydelse för revisionskvaliteten än vad tidspressen har. Forskningsresultaten har tidigare publicerats i den internationella tidskriftsartikeln “Auditors’ time pressure: Does ethical culture support audit quality?” (Svanberg och Öhman, 2013).

  • 18192.
    Öhman, Rasmus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energikartläggning av lokaler och processer i hyresfastigheten Sörby Urfjäll 37:32013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsatts är att utreda energianvändningen i fastigheten Sörby Urfjäll 37:3 och samman ställa en energibalans.

    Mätningar gjordes på elanvändning, av temperaturer i ventilationskanaler och temperatur loggning gjordes i fastigheten. Under platsbesöken undersöktes användningen av maskiner, antalet människor som vistas i de olika delarna av fastigheten samt att maskiner, kylskåp, datorer och lampor räknades och eleffekten på dessa registrerades.

    Utifrån mätningar, statistik och observationer beräknades temperaturverkningsgrader ut på ventilationssystemen, värmetillskott och värmeförluster beräknades. Med utgångspunkt i beräkningar och statistik sammanställdes en energibalans.

    Åtgärder har utifrån de resultat som uppkom under arbetets gång för att effektivisera fastighetens energianvändning tagits fram. Åtgärdernas kostnader och hur invecklade de är varierar från att täta springor och rengöra fönster till att byta ut stora ventilationssystem.

  • 18193.
    Öhman, Yvonne
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Högskolan in Gävle: en studie av skolans marknadsföring och kommunikation i ett2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att ta reda på:

    · Hur skolan i allmänhet marknadsför sig

    · Om de marknadsför sig enligt teorin

    · Om det finns några alternativ till marknadsföringen

    · Hur skolan ska uppmärksammas i omvärlden

  • 18194.
    Öhnell, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Martinsson, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Allt går att reparera förutom döden: en studie om tillitens betydelse mellan behandlare och klient2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a qualitative study with the intent to examine how a number of clients and counselors describe their experiences and impressions of the importance of high-level trust vs. low-level trust relationships between the client and the counselor. We have separately interviewed two clients and one counselor from an addiction treatment center (HVB-home). We found several similarities in the clients´ stories. Both had, for example, experienced weak attachment during their childhood and their addictions were about ridding anxiety. Both clients have had prior experiences of low-level trust relationship with counselor which has led to a negative impact on their treatment. The counselor we interviewed believed that a client’s earlier attachment experiences can influence whether or not a new relationship between a client and a counselor will be successful. That which we have found most interesting in the interviews is that all three interviewees agree that a high-level trust relationship between the client and the counselor is of high importance for the outcome of the treatment.

  • 18195.
    Öholm, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Utredning av snödeponi med konstruerad våtmark: Undersökning av nya indikatorer och rutiner till kontrollprogram för Gävle kommun2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study deals with the disposal of snow inGavle, and with systems for handling the masses of snow. The disposal of snow may fall within the classification of environmentally hazardous activities. One reason for this classification is the snow's ability to accumulate contaminants. The purpose of the study is that based on the high-profileproblem areas at the facilityfor snowprovide a basis for possible areas of improvement for the existing framework for the management of the facility.Since the facilityin this study has been deemed environmentally hazardous activities are a number of requirements that the facility should not constitute a nuisance to humans and the environment. Requirements include procedures for a structured approach to self-regulation. In this case there is an established inspection program to perform thecontrols. The monitoring program has contributed to insecurity in the municipality, when it has not been considered include facilityfor snowsactivity. With the examination of the existing control program has been considered in this study to be the most compatible with facilityfor snow. However, there are procedures in the control program should be reviewed and adjusted or even removed from the program.Therefore, a further investigation on what points in the program can be eliminated.Based on previously conducted water sampling, carried out by authorized consultants, and hasanalyzed the results compiled. There, among other things, revealed shortcomings with sampling designs. They have not been conducted according to the established inspection program and at times has been sampling absent entirely. Despite this, no higher concentrations of pollutants found for the melt water in comparison with the general guidelines. Therefore, routine surface water sampling questioned, it generally needs to be performed according to the prescribed in the control program.New indicators for the analysis of surface water havebeen produced as suggestions for future sampling. They have been implemented by investigating which substances have been found in highest concentration in the compilation of the sampling results, in which the metals copper, zinc and lead are the most abundant. Since these substances, together with suspended substances were found to be most detectable, these substances can be important indicators continue to evaluate. Survey has also been carried out on the basis of guidelines and standard levels for surface water, and it resulted in indicators chromium, nickel, phosphorus, nitrogen and PAHs were added.These substances not examined in the current situation, therefore, there may be a need to perform a comprehensive sampling. It can be implemented to determine which substances may be present in addition to what is already checked during sampling.

  • 18196.
    Öholm, Olivia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Reducering av ställtider2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att vara konkurrenskraftig i dagens globaliserade företagsklimat krävs kostnadseffektiva lösningar som gör det möjligt för företag att möta kundernas krav gällande såväl kvalitet som pris och förmåga att leverera enligt överrenskommelse. Gevalia, ett producerande företag i Gävle, har problem med långa ställtider som markant drar ner deras effektivitet. En universell vedertagen metod för att minska ställtider är SMED, Single minute exchange of die, som anses kunna göras kompatibel i alla typer av industrier.

     

    Syftet med detta examensarbete var således att undersöka orsakerna bakom de långa ställtiderna samt hur dessa kan minskas. Vidare skulle en analysstruktur för ställtidsreduktion skapas.  För att uppnå syftet har intervjuer och observationer gjorts på Gevalia, samt en litteraturstudie kring berörda områden.

     

    Analysstrukturen som skapades är inspirerad av SMED och PDCA-cykeln. Strukturen innefattar även andra metoder som bland annat 5 Why och 5S, samt tar hänsyn till det mänskliga beteendet. Strukturen består av fem steg:

    1. Kartlägg nuläget
    2. Analysera
    3. Skapa förbättringsförslag
    4. Implementera
    5. Utvärdera och återkoppla

     

    Denna struktur användes sedan för att komma fram till förbättringsförslag. Dessa förbättringsförslag blev:

    • Skapa en fixerad utgångspunkt
    • Skapa ett omställningsschema som innefattar hela omställningsprocessen
    • Utbilda och motivera personalen så de gör som det nya tillvägagångssättet säger.

     

    Dessa förbättringsförslag kommer efter examensarbetet tillämpas hos Gevalia.

  • 18197.
    Öholm-Lundahl, Helen
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mählqvist, Evalena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelser av intravenös jämfört med nasal smärtlindring inom ambulanssjukvården i Stockholm: En empirisk studie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A common symptom of ambulance care is pain, which can often exacerbate the pain already experienced by the patient, as the necessary movements are carried out by the crew to the stern and ambulance. It is the nurses in the ambulance crew who assess whether pain relief is required urgently or not during transport to hospitals.   Objective: The purpose of this study was to study patient´s experiences of intranasal (i.n) pain relief compared to intravenous (i.v) pain relief within the ambulance service in Stockholm area.    Method: The study is an empirical study with a descriptive design.   Main results: The study showed that the only significant difference in the area where the experience of anxiety and/or fear was measured in connection with i. n versus i. v. pain relief method. It was more that experienced a negative aspect in the form of anxiety and or fear in the group that received in n pain relief. No other significant differences in the experience of pain relief, satisfaction of neither the ring's power, the way to obtain the medicine or experience side effects was demonstrated. A comparison of the reported showed that the most common side effect was nausea, and it was most common in the group that received in n pain relief.   Conclusion: Based on this result, one can question whether the mode of administration is crucial for the effect and experience of positive or negative aspects of pain management. 

  • 18198.
    Öhrn, Helena
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Barns upptäckter av matematik: ett undervisningsförsök med utgångspunkt från en barnbok2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Användandet av barnböcker för att upptäcka matematik är ett tillvägagångssätt som inte är helt vanligt. Efter en kurs i matematik under utbildningen väcktes min nyfikenhet inför detta.

    Syftet med studien är att se vad en barnbok ger för pedagogiska möjligheter att upptäcka matematik. Metoden grundar sig på ett undervisningsförsök där jag tillsammans med en grupp barn och utifrån en bok inspirerats att arbeta med matematik. Resultaten visar att en barnbok lämpar sig mycket väl som tillvägagångssätt för att upptäcka och utforska matematikens aspekter. Min slutsats är att genom att vara en medveten pedagog och se så väl till barnens förförståelse som till sina egna förgivettaganden, kan man med inspiration av barns tankar och idéer från en boks text och bilder hitta vägar till matematikens värld.

  • 18199.
    Öhrn, Henrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    NoSQL-databaser och utnyttjandet av en grafdatabas i ett transportnätverk2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den allmänna kunskapen om NoSQL-databaser är begränsad. Den här uppsatsen koncentrerar sig på att sammanställa egenskaper och information om för- och nackdelar som rör dessa databastyper samt relationsdatabaser i en undersökning. Uppsatsen belyser även användningsområden för de olika databastyperna och i en fallstudie testas en grafdatabas förmåga att representera och utföra sökningar av data från ett järnvägsspårnät. Problemområdena undersöktes genom att samla information om olika typer av databaser från artiklar och böcker. Tillämpningsfallet i fallstudien implementerades och testades i en grafdatabas. Resultatet av undersökningen visade att NoSQL-databaser är ett intressant alternativ i vissa fall men att mycket hänsyn måste tas innan man väljer vilken typ av databas som är mest lämpad i den specifika tillämpningen. Resultatet av fallstudien visar att en grafdatabas är särdeles lämpad för att representera och utföra operationer på ett transportnätverk. Detta till stora delar beroende på dess förmåga att representera kopplingarna i ett transportnätverk och i form av de operationerna som finns i grafteorin och som grafmodellen erbjuder.Nyckelord: nosql, relationsdatabas, nyckel/värde-databas, kolumndatabas, objektdatabas, dokumentdatabas, grafdatabas, järnvägsnätverk, transportnätverk

  • 18200.
    Öhrn, Kristina
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Different Mapping Techniques for Realistic Surfaces2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The different mapping techniques that are used increases the details on surfaces without increasing the number of polygons. Image Based Sculpting tools in the program Modo and Z-Brush is used to create folds and wrinkles from photographs of actual fabrics instead of trying to create these shapes by modeling them. This method makes it easier to achieve photorealistic renderings and produce as realistic fabric dynamics as possible when they are applied on objects.

361362363364365366367 18151 - 18200 of 18314
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