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  • 201.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Fra rigiditet til fleksibilitet2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 202.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Limiting patients as a nursing practice in psychiatric intensive care units to ensure safety and gain control2015In: Perspectives in psychiatric care, ISSN 0031-5990, E-ISSN 1744-6163, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 241-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of this study was to describe how the limitation of patients is being practiced in psychiatric intensive care units.

    Design and Methods

    A focused ethnographic methodology was applied. To gather data, the author conducted fieldwork involving participant observation.

    Findings

    The results of the study are presented in two categories, which describe the limited access patients had to items and in the ward environments.

    Practice Implications

    It is advisable for practitioners to critically reflect upon local regulations and policies related to the practice of limiting patients during the worst phase of their mental illness.

  • 203.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Mental health nurses’ use of Twitter for professional purposes during conference participation #acmhn20162018In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 804-813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars across different disciplines use Twitter to promote research and to communicate with society. Most conferences nowadays have their unique hashtag in which participants can communicate in real time. Previous research has reported on conference participants' use of Twitter, but no such studies are available in the field of mental health nursing. Thus, the explicit aim of the present study was to examine conference participants' use of Twitter during the 42nd International Mental Health Nursing Conference. Freely-accessible data were mined via a social media platform under the hashtag #acmhn2016. The total dataset consisted of 1973 tweets, and was analysed with descriptive statistics and a directed content analysis. The results demonstrated that 37% of the tweets were original posts, and 63% were engagements. In total, 184 individual accounts engaged in Twitter during the conference, and 16.4 tweets were posted hourly. Most tweets were categorized as conference/session-related content, but Twitter was also used for socializing with other participants. The most frequently-used words mirror a clear connection to a person-centred approach, and deviate from the biomedical terminology. However, not all of the conference participants engaged on Twitter, and might thereby risk being excluded from this backchannel.

  • 204.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Moral mindfulness: ethical concerns in the work life of health care professionals in a psychiatric intensive care unit2018In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 1851-1860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare professionals working on inpatient wards face the externalizing or challenging behaviour of the patients who are admitted. Ethical values and principles in psychiatric nursing have been reported to be important when approaching patients during the most acute phase of deterioration in their mental health. Hence, the aim of this study was to discover and describe staff members' ethical and moral concerns about their work as healthcare professionals in a psychiatric intensive care unit. The study has a qualitative descriptive design and makes use of Framework Analysis. Registered nurses and psychiatric aides in a psychiatric intensive care unit in Sweden were observed during ethical reflection meetings. Four to six staff attended the 90-min meetings. The data comprise observations from six meetings, which provided 94 pages of text. The results demonstrate that the work was described as being both motivating and exhausting. The staff faced ethical concerns in their daily work, as patients often demonstrated challenging behaviours. Three themes were identified as follows: (i) concerns about the staff impacting on patients' experience of care, (ii) concerns about establishing a safe working environment, and (iii) concerns about becoming unprofessional due to expectations and a high workload. Ethical concerns included simultaneously taking into account both the patients' dignity and safety aspects, while also being exposed to high workloads. These elements of work are theorized as influencing complex psychiatric nursing. If we are to bring these influential factors to light in the workplace, advanced nursing practice must be grounded in moral mindfulness.

  • 205.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Omvårdnad i intensiv- och akutpsykiatri - ta del av senaste forskningen och utveckla ditt bemötande och förhållningssätt!2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    • Akut omvårdnad – ta del av konkreta åtgärder att ta till i olika situationer

    • Hur kan du arbeta för att reducera tvångsåtgärder?

    • Hur bemöter och hanterar du olika tillstånd – ta del av olika exempel!

    • Att skapa en hållbar relation genom flexibilitet

  • 206.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Space invaders: A netnographic study of how artefacts in nursing home environments exercise disciplining structures2016In: Nursing Inquiry, ISSN 1320-7881, E-ISSN 1440-1800, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 138-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to present culturally situated artefacts as depicted in nursing home environments and to analyze the underlying understandings of disciplining structures that are manifested in these kinds of places. Our personal geographies are often taken for granted, but when moving to a nursing home, geographies are glaringly rearranged. The study design is archival and cross-sectional observational, and the data is comprised of 38 photos and 13 videos showing environments from nursing homes. The analysis was inspired by the methodological steps in Roper’s and Shapira’s description of conducting an ethnography. The results are presented in four categories: 1) public areas, 2) orderliness, 3) staff’s places and 4) devices. The rearrangement of geography implies a degrading of agency and loss of authority over one’s place. The places should be understood in their relation to the agents and their temporarily claims upon them. The material and immaterial artefacts, that is the items, people and behaviours, transform the nursing staff into “space invaders”. Future inquiries may take into consideration the ways that space invasion in participative space intersect and construct the identities of the agents it invades upon.

  • 207.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Spice up your life: virtual communication on the experiences from using synthetic cannabinoids2016In: Sestrinski glasnik/Nursing Journal, ISSN 1331-7563, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 112-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The body of evidence about synthetic cannabinoids and their harmful physiological and psychological effects is increasing due to laboratory research and clinical case reports. However, little attention in research has been paid to users’ perceived intoxication experiences. Therefore, the insider perspective is accounted in this paper. Purpose: The study aims to explore and describe anecdotal communication about “spice”, a synthetic cannabinoid, among users. Methods: A netnographic methodology was applied using data from forum discussions. Results: The findings are presented in two categories: 1th) communication sharing experience-based knowledge from intoxication and 2nd) communication sharing attitudes, norms and values. The analysis that follows posits that there is near-consensus among the posters (users who has submitted a message) that synthetic cannabinoids are associated with negative experiences and should be avoided. Conclusions: The performativity of interactivity may be pivotal in helping frightened users make sense of their experiences. Therefore, a platform for communication among Spice users has important intrinsic value.

  • 208.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Talking about “the problematic patient” does not benefit recovery2016In: SESTRINSKI GLASNIK / Nursing Journal, ISSN 1331-7563, Vol. 21, p. 82-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 209.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Using focused ethnography to explore and describe the process of nurses' shift reports in a psychiatric intensive care unit2018In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 27, no 15-16, p. 3104-3114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore and describe the cultural routine of shift reports among nursing staff in a psychiatric intensive care unit, and further to develop a taxonomic, thematic and theoretical understanding of the process.

    BACKGROUND: Lack of communication among healthcare staff is associated with risks for medical errors. Thus, handovers and shift reports are an essential and integral routine among nurses in order to pass on information about the patients' health status. Previous studies within the field have highlighted the benefits of structured reporting tools. However, shift reports as a cultural activity within the nursing tradition have been given less attention, not the least in psychiatric care.

    METHODS: Focused ethnography was used. The data comprised 20 observational sessions. The observations ranged over a time span of 5 months and were conducted in a psychiatric intensive care unit in Sweden.

    RESULTS: The process of shift reports encompassed the following three phases: 1) getting settled, 2) giving the report and 3) engaging in the aftermath. The results demonstrate that the phases entails different cultural activities, which take place in different areas of the ward and that the level of formality varied.

    CONCLUSIONS: Shift reports are not an isolated event with clear boundaries. The study enriches the understanding of shift reports as a 'fuzzy process'. The individual phases were found to be tied to cultural connotations, such as activities, places and roles with certain meanings for staff members.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The new insights are useful for nurses in overcoming an uncritical adoption of the biomedical tradition regarding pace and tone during shift reports. The reporting nurse has the potential to transform shift reports from a monologue with a foreclosed style to a more dialogical interaction with colleagues that focuses on the patients' needs rather than the needs of staff.

  • 210.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Using participatory action research to develop a work model that enhances psychiatric nurses' professionalism: the architecture of stability2017In: Administration and Policy in Mental Health, ISSN 0894-587X, E-ISSN 1573-3289, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 888-903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ward rules in psychiatric care aim to promote safety for both patients and staff. Simultaneously, ward rules are associated with increased patient violence, leading to neither a safe work environment nor a safe caring environment. Although ward rules are routinely used, few studies have explicitly accounted for their impact. To describe the process of a team development project considering ward rule issues, and to develop a working model to empower staff in their daily in-patient psychiatric nursing practices. The design of this study is explorative and descriptive. Participatory action research methodology was applied to understand ward rules. Data consists of audiorecorded group discussions, observations and field notes, together creating a data set of 556 text pages. More than 100 specific ward rules were identified. In this process, the word rules was relinquished in favor of adopting the term principles, since rules are inconsistent with a caring ideology. A linguistic transition led to the development of a framework embracing the (1) Principle of Safety, (2) Principle of Structure and (3) Principle of Interplay. The principles were linked to normative guidelines and applied ethical theories: deontology, consequentialism and ethics of care. The work model reminded staff about the principles, empowered their professional decision-making, decreased collegial conflicts because of increased acceptance for individual decisions, and, in general, improved well-being at work. Furthermore, the work model also empowered staff to find support for their decisions based on principles that are grounded in the ethics of totality.

  • 211.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Virtual communication about psychiatric intensive care units: social actor representatives claim space on Twitter2017In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 366-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychiatric intensive care units (PICU) provide care for those with the worst phases of mental illness. What defines a PICU is often decided locally at hospitals. The aim of the present study was to explore and describe a contemporary discourse on how PICU are socially constructed from virtual discussions. An explorative and descriptive study design was applied for this qualitative inquiry using discourse methodology. The data were collected in Twitter's search string and consists of 215 Twitter postings. A framework of social actor representatives that form the discourse was established and presented in three categories: (i) hospital and agencies communicating about PICU; (ii) health-care professionals communicating about PICU; and (iii) service users and relatives communicating about PICU. Hospitals, agencies, and health-care professionals hold great power and responsibility for informing the public about PICU. 

  • 212.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Work life and family life collide: new fathers seek online support about concerns related to parental leave2017In: Workplace Health & Safety, ISSN 2165-0799, Vol. 65, no 6, p. 248-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze online discussions about parental leave in relation to the work lives and private lives of new fathers. A netnographic study of nearly 100 discussion threads from a freely accessible online forum for fathers was conducted.  Data were coded, sorted and categorized by qualitative similarities and differences. The results of the study indicate that new fathers seek Internet forums to discuss work-related topics. Parental leave can provoke worries and anxiety related to management and co-worker attitudes which can provoke concern that they should be back at work. The results are presented in two categories: (1) Attitudes expressed by employers and colleagues, and (2) Leaving work but longing to be back.  The phenomenon of parental leave for fathers is more complex than simply “for” or “against” attitudes. Fathers can use Internet forums to discuss their experiences, fears and anxiety and provide reasonable accommodations for both work and family life. 

  • 213.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Bjuhr, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating the Educational Module Students Active Learning via Internet Observations (SALIO) in Undergraduate Nursing Education2017In: Perspectives in psychiatric care, ISSN 0031-5990, E-ISSN 1744-6163, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 104-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study aimed not only to describe the development and implementation of the module but also to evaluate the nursing students' perceptions.

    Design and Methods

    A cross-sectional design including 101 students who were asked to participate and answer a survey. We describe the development of the pedagogic module Students Active Learning via Internet Observations based on situated learning.

    Findings

    The findings show that learning about service users' own lived experiences via web-based platforms was instructive according to the students: 81% agreed to a high or very high degree. Another important finding was that 96% of students responded that the module had clinical relevance for nursing work.

    Practice Implications

    We argue that learning that engages students with data that are contextually and culturally situated is important for developing competence in caregiving.

  • 214.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Björkman, Annica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Mental illness in the population is increasing: a challenge for telephone advice nurses2017In: Journal of social service research, ISSN 0148-8376, E-ISSN 1540-7314, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 432-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental illness is a term that includes everything from mild symptoms of anxiety and depression to more serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression, and suicide. Reports indicate a negative trend, where rates of mental illness in the population are increasing, especially among children and adolescents and among the elderly. This negative trend in Swedish society requires not only preventive measures to stem the negative trend but also ongoing community resources to assist, support, and advise people with mental illness who seek care.

  • 215.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Dahlén, Jeanette
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden; Ersta Sköndal University College, Institution for Caring Science, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nurses' establishment of health promoting relationships: a descriptive synthesis of anorexia nervosa research2017In: Journal of Child and Family Studies, ISSN 1062-1024, E-ISSN 1573-2843, Vol. 26, no 1Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Qualitative values that address personal and interpersonal dimensions are often overlooked in research that examines mental well-being among young patients with anorexia nervosa. The aim of this study was to identify and describe factors that promote and impede the relationships between nurses and the children, adolescents and young adults who are diagnosed with anorexia nervosa and also to explore and describe how those relationships benefit the patients' processes toward increased health and well-being. A descriptive literature synthesis was conducted following the four steps as described by Evans. The three databases Cinahl, PsycINFO and PubMed were used to search for qualitative articles. Fourteen articles met the criteria for inclusion and were analyzed. Key findings were identified, and categories and themes were formulated and compared across the studies. Four themes are presented in the results: 1) The essentials in a relationship; 2) The person at the centre, 3) The nurses' attitudes; and 4) Knowledge. In addition to the contribution to the knowledge of how anorexia is manifested, our findings demonstrate the necessity for nurses to be person-centred in their relationships with patients and to have attitudes characterised by presence, genuine commitment and motivation. Nurses are more likely to convey a sense of trust and safety when they communicate with openness and honesty. Our study suggests that the motivation for patients to adhere to treatment is likely to increase when nurses approach patients with these characteristics and attitudes. We argue that the findings are relevant for nurses in their everyday practices.

  • 216.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Department of nursing and care, The Swedish red cross university college, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A descriptive statistical analysis of volume, visibility and attitudes regarding nursing and care robots in social media2018In: Contemporary Nurse: health care across the lifespan, ISSN 1037-6178, E-ISSN 1839-3535, Vol. 54, no 1 (SI), p. 88-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Technology in the healthcare sector is undergoing rapid development. One of the most prominent areas of healthcare in which robots are implemented is nursing homes. However, nursing and technology are often considered as being contradictory, an attitude originating in the view of ?the natural? versus ?the artificial?. Social media mirror this view, including in attitudes and societal debates regarding nursing and care robots. However, little is known about this topic in previous research. Objectives: To examine user behaviour in social media platforms on the topic of nursing and care robots. Design: A retrospective and cross-sectional observation study design was applied. Methods: Data were collected via the Alchemy streaming application programming interface. Data from social media were collected from 1 January 2014 to 5 January 2016. The data set consisted of 12,311 mentions in total. Results: Nursing and care robots are a small-scale topic of discussion in social media. Twitter was found to be the largest channel in terms of volume, followed by Tumblr. News channels had the highest percentage of visibility, while forums and Tumblr had the least. It was found in the data that 67.9% of the mentions were positive, 24.4% were negative and 7.8% were neutral. Discussion: The volume and visibility of the data on nursing robots found in social media, as well as the attitudes to nursing robots found there, indicate that nursing care robots, which are seen as representing a next step in technological development in healthcare, are a topic on the rise in social media. These findings are likely to be related to the idea that nursing care robots are on the breakthrough of replacing human labour in healthcare worldwide.

  • 217.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Department of Nursing and Care, The Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Absorbability, applicability and availability in nursing and care robots: A thematic analysis of Twitter postings2018In: Telematics and informatics, ISSN 0736-5853, E-ISSN 1879-324X, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 1553-1560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nursing and care robots (NCR) have become an important technological innovation in various areas in the medical discipline. Previous studies have found that implementation of robots in healthcare is both associated with positive and negative attitudes. This study aims to improve the understanding of the general public's communication about nursing and care robots through analyzing the content of posts in social media. An advanced social intelligence platform was used to mine Twitter content. From the platform, data were collected historically. An archival and cross-sectional observational study was conducted online. The data set comprising of 5954 tweets were thematically analyzed. Tweets under the theme of absorbability show that nursing and care robots are considered to be a part of users’ lives, either now or sometime in the future for Twitter users, and the topic is tackled as a fact but with humor, skepticism and enthusiasm. Tweets falling under applicability show that potential nursing and care robots usage covers a range of arenas in everyday life. Results thematized as availability show sincere concern about how the accessibility of nursing and care robots in everyday life will affect costs and other economic aspects, both on a global and an individual level as well as on micro and macro levels of economies. Twitter offers a window into attitudes and ideas as well as fundamental beliefs and practices. Thus, monitoring Twitter discussions on social media can provide valuable insights into current attitudes as well as forecasting coming trends. The data includes information about Twitter users’ anxious relationships with nursing and care robots. We raise important questions about the nature of nursing and care robots and their implementations, both in health care but also in everyday living.

  • 218.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola.
    Empatiska robotar förändrar vårdvetenskapen2015In: Vårdfokus, ISSN 2000-5717, Vol. 12, p. 26-27Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi vill lyfta fram en till synes uppenbar 
vårdvetenskaplig paradox, den 
empatiska roboten, och vad en sådan paradox kan vara bra för.

  • 219.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Sweden.
    Forskningsdata från cyberrymden: analys och vägledning utifrån vårdvetenskaplig kunskapsteori [Research data from Cyberspace: Analyses and guidelines from caring science epistemology]2015In: Nordic journal of nursing research, ISSN 2057-1585, E-ISSN 2057-1593, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 91-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to identify how ethical issues have been handled in theses written by undergraduate students in the field.

    Background: The act of gathering information online to become an ‘‘expert’’ by locating useful advice for oneself – and others - is a fairly new phenomenon. How virtual caring and nursing can contribute to people’s health as a resource is growing as an area of interest within the field of caring sciences. 

    Methods: A qualitative content analysis of 21 bachelor theses in nursing science was conducted. The analysis focused on how ethical issues concerning gathering data in cyberspace werehandled.

    Findings: The results show that the students chose very complex health issues when gathering data in cyberspace. The results reveal asymmetries between the researcher and subjects behind the data (the bloggers), both in terms of knowledge as well as in relation to the resources available to them.

    Conclusions: There is a need to discuss cyberspace as a source of data, including ethical, ontological, and epistemological issues. Based on the findings we provide a tentative outline of how data from cyberspace can be used by nursing researchers and instructors at all levels in the field.

  • 220.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Department of Health Sciences, The Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    PhD students' presenting, staging and announcing their educational status - An analysis of shared images in social media2018In: Computers and education, ISSN 0360-1315, E-ISSN 1873-782X, Vol. 116, p. 237-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little research has been conducted on the question of academics' use of social media. The effects of social media on the educational environment of postgraduate students need to be further explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying values and ideas of being in postgraduate education by analysing 176 posted photos on social media. The findings show that PhD students manifest their educational status by presenting themselves as being in a process, staging academic artefacts and announcing important achievements towards the goal of earning their degree. These activities represent a global understanding of being a PhD student, that exists regardless of nation, gender or ethnicity and as such represents a “meta curricula” that exists above and beyond any locally defined PhD syllabus. It should be considered that the constant mirroring of PhD student life that has been made possible via social platforms seems to gain in importance and that the enculturation into the academic culture that exists among postgraduate students' own activities on social media needs to be taken into account when addressing postgraduate education, in practice as well as in research. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  • 221.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Department of Nursing and Care, The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Prosperity of nursing care robots: an imperative for the development of new infrastructure and competence for health professions in geriatric care2017In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 486-488Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 222.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tech-resistance: the complexity of implementing nursing robots in healthcare workplaces2016In: Contemporary Nurse: health care across the lifespan, ISSN 1037-6178, E-ISSN 1839-3535, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 567-568Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 223.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola.
    The rise of the avatar: virtual dimensions of 'the human' in nursing science2015In: Nordic journal of nursing research, ISSN 2057-1585, E-ISSN 2057-1593, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 158-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this theory article, we discuss the virtual dimensions of the human, the avatar, in relation to ontological assumptions within nursing science. Assumptions in nursing science promote a ‘wholistic’ perspective of the human in terms of body, mind and spirit in relation to the environment. However, due to the enhanced technological development and the invention of cyberspace, we pose the critical question of whether the virtual dimension of identity really implicates a ‘wholistic’ view of human kindness or if this has been neglected. Furthermore, we suggest an ontological understanding that grasps new dimensions of humanity. In the article, we discuss the virtual dimensions of the human in relation to ontological assumptions within nursing science under the three headings of The techno-self and virtual identitiesTechno-therapy and cyber nursing, and Becoming homo technicus. Due to these reflections, this article contributes to the debate on a postmodern understanding of human living conditions in society. We suggest further theoretical discussions to explore the conceptual and theoretical levels of nursing knowledge as new realities of human existence are introduced in the field. The transition into the digital age of the Internet, with the existence of cyborgs and avatars, is an ontological and epistemological challenge for nursing science that needs to be further investigated.

  • 224.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Hiçdurmaz, Duygu
    Hacettepe University Faculty of Nursing, Ankara, Turkey.
    Use of social media among individuals who suffer from post-traumatic stress: a qualitative analysis of narratives2017In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 285-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suffering from post-traumatic stress impacts and restricts the life situation of the individual on several levels, not least regarding social difficulties. Social media on the Internet facilitate new possibilities for interaction and communication. Earlier research has demonstrated that people use social media to seek support and to discuss health-related issues. The current study aimed to describe how individuals suffering from post-traumatic stress use social media to convey authentic narratives of their daily lives, including illness, and further, to analyze the content of this media use. The data comprised YouTube videos, blogs, and forum discussions. Five categories cover the findings: (a) structure of the narrative, (b) narrating the trauma, (c) restrictions in life, (d) strategies in everyday living, and (e) online interaction. We stress that sharing narratives online facilitates a "verbalizing" of the life conditions of the sufferers and can be used as a self-care activity.

  • 225.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Lagerqvist, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Pousette, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Keep calm and have a good night: nurses' strategies to promote inpatients' sleep in the hospital environment2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 356-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients in the hospital environment are suffering from disrupted sleep, which adversely affects their recovery process, health and well-being. The aim of this study was to explore nurses' experiences and their strategies to promote inpatients' sleep. An empirical qualitative design was applied. Eight nurses at a hospital in Sweden were purposefully selected to be included in semi-structured interviews. Burnard's method for inductively analysing interview transcripts was applied. The findings are presented in four categories: (i) prevention and planning as a sleep-promoting nursing strategy; (ii) adaptation of the environment as a sleep-promoting nursing strategy; (iii) use of drugs as a sleep-promoting nursing strategy; and (iv) caring conversation as a sleep-promoting nursing strategy. Using strategies to promote sleep is important as it affects the recovery of the patients. We argue for the use of simple strategies of sensory reduction as cost-effective sleep-promoting measures that also reduce the use of sedative drugs.

  • 226.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Rydlo, Cecilia
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, University of Mälardalen, Västerås, Sweden.
    Wiklund Gustin, Lena
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, University of Mälardalen, Västerås, Sweden; Department of Health and Care Sciences, UiT/The Arctic University of Norway, Campus Narvik, Norway.
    Getting to know the person behind the illness: the significance of interacting with patients hospitalised in forensic psychiatric settings2016In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 25, no 9-10, p. 1426-1434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe what nurses want to accomplish in relationships with patients who are hospitalised in forensic psychiatric settings.

    BACKGROUND: Relationships between staff and patients in forensic psychiatric settings should be grounded in trust and confidence, and the patients need opportunities for emotional reconciliation. However, relationships can be challenging for nurses, who sometimes distance themselves from patients' expressions of suffering. The role of forensic mental health nurses is nebulous, as are the prescriptives and the implementation of nursing practices.

    DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive design.

    METHODS: In-depth interviews with five nurses who all work in forensic psychiatric settings.

    RESULTS: We present a descriptive analysis of what nurses want to accomplish in relationships with patients who are hospitalised in forensic psychiatric settings. The results are presented in two main categories: (1) getting to know the person behind the illness and (2) making a difference.

    CONCLUSION: Care in forensic psychiatry needs to shift towards a more long-term view of the role of nursing, focusing less on the traditional and stereotypical identity of the productive nurse and more on the care given when nurses slow down and take the time to see the patients as individuals. Establishing trusting relationships with patients in forensic psychiatric settings is viewed as a less oppressive way to control patients and guide them in directions that are preferable for the nurses and for the society.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Nurses may use simple strategies in their daily practice such as sitting on the sofa with patients to establish trust. We stress that nurses should abandon policing roles and custodial activities in favour of guiding principles that promote individual recovery, treatment and health-promoting care.

  • 227.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjödin, Marie
    Northern Stockholm Psychiatry, Section for Affective Disorders, Inpatient care unit for patients with bipolar disorder, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A narrative meta-synthesis of how people with schizophrenia experience facilitators and barriers in using antipsychotic medication: implications for healthcare professionals2018In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 85, p. 7-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: It is recognized that people who are diagnosed with schizophrenia often do not fully adhere with their antipsychotic prescription. The vast majority of previous research on the topic of medical adherence is limited to quantitative research methods, and in particular, to determining correlations.

    OBJECTIVES: The present review was designed to describe how people who are diagnosed with schizophrenia experience and narrate pharmacological treatment with antipsychotic medication.

    DESIGN: A narrative meta-synthesis.

    DATA SOURCES/REVIEW METHOD: A search was conducted in three databases, PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO, to identify qualitative original research. Nine articles met the criteria for inclusion and were subjected to a qualitative interpretive meta-synthesis.

    RESULTS: The findings showed that patients were uninformed about medication but valued talks about medication with professionals. The findings also demonstrated that patients are motivated to take medication in order to gain stability in their life and to be able to participate in life activities and in relationships. Good support, both from relatives and professionals, also motivates them to continue taking medication. The obstacles were side-effects, pressure and compulsion, and rigid organizations.

    CONCLUSIONS: We advise professionals to adopt a person-centered approach to healthcare when encountering these patients and to transform the language used to describe patients from terms denoting compliance and adherence to terms denoting cooperation and alliance. Labeling patients as compliant or non-adherent may risk fortifying preconception of patients as static beings and obscure the patients' individual recovery process.

  • 228.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Söderqvist, Cecilia
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, University of Mälardalen, Västerås, Sweden; Centre for Clinical Research, Västmanland County Hospital, Västerås, Sweden .
    Being subject to restrictions, limitations and disciplining: a thematic analysis of individuals’ experiences in psychiatric intensive care2017In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 540-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe individuals' experiences of being hospitalized in psychiatric intensive care units (PICUs). Four participants who had previously been admitted in a PICU were interviewed using open-ended questions. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Analysis resulted in a synthesis of the various ways patients experienced limitations: (1) Descriptions of Being Limited in the Environment, (2) Descriptions of being Limited in Interactions with Staff, (3) Descriptions of Being Limited in terms of Access to Information, and (4) Descriptions of Having Limited Freedom and Autonomy. Hospitalization is experienced as a life-changing event that shows a kaleidoscopic view of limitation. We stress that the conceptualization of limitation must be considered due to its historical origins, sociopolitical aspirations, and philosophy of care. Thus, nurse practitioners and nursing leaders are advised to put the patient's experience at the center of care, and to involve and integrate patients throughout the recovery process.

  • 229.
    Sandberg, Charlotte
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Söderlind, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Att leva med fibromyalgi: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: About 2 percent of people in the world suffers from Fibromyalgia, out of them about 80 percent are women. Common symptoms are pain over a long period of time. Why this illness occurs is still unknown. Other characteristic features of this illness is fatigue, soreness and cognitive problems, such as forgetfulness.  

    Aim: The aim of this literature review was to describe the experience of living with fibromyalgia and to describe the method of data collection in the included articles.

    Method: Literature review with descriptive design. 13 qualitative articles were included. The articles were acquired through searches in the databases Cinahl and Medline by PubMed.  

    Main Results: People with fibromyalgia experienced that the pain and fatigue, that their illness caused, changed just about everything in their daily life. Most of them experienced that their psychological well being and social life were affected negatively by the illness. To not be believed or received well by people they met or by healthcare professionals was described as a big problem that happened far too often. This literature review also describe the method of data collection used in the included articles. Eleven out of thirteen articles used interviews as the method for data collection. One article used a questionnaire, and one article used focus group discussion.

    Conclusions: Descriptions of experiences of living with fibromyalgia has shown that it affects these persons on many levels of their life, both physically, psychologically and socially. The pain and fettique hinders them in their day to day life.  They experience that they are not believed or taken seriously in their daily life, nor in the encounters with healthcare professionals. 

  • 230.
    Sellberg, Fanny
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Social Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    epartment of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Willmer, Mikaela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Tynelius, Per
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berglind, Daniel
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Change in Children's Self-Concept, Body-Esteem, and Eating Attitudes Before and 4 Years After Maternal RYGB2018In: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 3276-3283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to look at longitudinal changes in children's self-concept, body-esteem, and eating attitudes before and 4 years after maternal RYGB surgery.

    METHODS: Sixty-nine women and 81 appurtenant children were recruited from RYGB waiting lists at 5 hospitals in Sweden. Families were visited at home pre-surgery, 9 months, and 4 years post-maternal RYGB to measure BMI. Furthermore, all participating family members completed questionnaires. Mothers' questionnaires measured eating behavior, depression, anxiety, and sleep quality, and children's questionnaires measured body-esteem, self-concept, and eating attitudes.

    RESULTS: Thirty-five/sixty-nine mothers and 43/81 children participated in all 3 measurements. Mothers reduced their BMI from pre-surgery (39.2) to 9 months (27.0) and 4 years post-surgery (27.4). Children's prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower 9 months post-surgery (48.8%) but at the same levels again 4 years post-surgery (58.1%), compared to pre-surgery (58.1%). The same rebound pattern was seen among children's eating attitudes, mothers' symptoms of depression and anxiety, and sleep quality. We found no correlations between mothers' BMI or eating behavior and children's BMI or eating behavior.

    CONCLUSION: Children's prevalence of overweight/obesity and eating attitudes improves soon after their mothers' RYGB, but then return to pre-surgery levels at 4 years post-surgery, as do mothers' sleep quality and symptoms of depression and anxiety, even though their weight loss was maintained.

  • 231.
    Sellberg, Fanny
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Social Medicin, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Possmark, Sofie
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Social Medicin, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Näslund, Erik
    Division of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Willmer, Mikaela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Tynelius, Per
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Social Medicin, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thorell, Anders
    Department of Clinical Science at Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Surgery, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundbom, Magnus
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Uddén, Joanna
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Endocrine and Obesity, Capio st Görans Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Szabo, Eva
    Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Berglind, Daniel
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Social Medicin, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A dissonance-based intervention for women post roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery aiming at improving quality of life and physical activity 24 months after surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial2018In: BMC Surgery, ISSN 1471-2482, E-ISSN 1471-2482, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is the most common bariatric procedure in Sweden and results in substantial weight loss. Approximately one year post-surgery weight regain for these patient are common, followed by a decrease in health related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical activity (PA). Our aim is to investigate the effects of a dissonance-based intervention on HRQoL, PA and other health-related behaviors in female RYGB patients 24 months after surgery. We are not aware of any previous RCT that has investigated the effects of a similar intervention targeting health behaviors after RYGB.

    METHODS: The ongoing RCT, the "WELL-GBP"-trial (wellbeing after gastric bypass), is a dissonance-based intervention for female RYGB patients conducted at five hospitals in Sweden. The participants are randomized to either control group receiving usual follow-up care, or to receive an intervention consisting of four group sessions three months post-surgery during which a modified version of the Stice dissonance-based intervention model is used. The sessions are held at the hospitals, and topics discussed are PA, eating behavior, social and intimate relationships. All participants are asked to complete questionnaires measuring HRQoL and other health-related behaviors and wear an accelerometer for seven days before surgery and at six months, one year and two years after surgery. The intention to treat and per protocol analysis will focus on differences between the intervention and control group from pre-surgery assessments to follow-up assessments at 24 months after RYGB. Patients' baseline characteristics are presented in this protocol paper.

    DISCUSSION: A total of 259 RYGB female patients has been enrolled in the "WELL-GBP"-trial, of which 156 women have been randomized to receive the intervention and 103 women to control group. The trial is conducted within a Swedish health care setting where female RYGB patients from diverse geographical areas are represented. Our results may, therefore, be representative for female RYGB patients in the country as a whole. If the intervention is effective, implementation within the Swedish health care system is possible within the near future.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on February 23th 2015 with registration number ISRCTN16417174.

  • 232.
    Sellberg, Fanny
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Social Medicin, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Possmark, Sofie
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Social Medicin, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Willmer, Mikaela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Berglind, Daniel
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Social Medicin, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A dissonance-based randomized intervention study to improve quality of life and physical activity 24 months post roux-en-y gastric bypass surgery2018In: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 28, p. 224-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is usually followed by great weight loss and improved health related quality of life (HRQoL). However, weight regains are seen in some patients approximately 1-2 years post-surgery, associated with a decrease in HRQoL and physical activity (PA).

    Objectives: To investigate if a dissonance-based group intervention post RYGB surgery has an effect on women’s HRQoL, PA and other health-related behaviors: a protocol paper.

    Methods: The ongoing RCT is a dissonance-based intervention for female RYGB patients from five Swedish hospitals. Participants are randomized to either control (usual follow-up care) or intervention group (4 sessions, 3 months post-surgery). Main topics of intervention sessions are (1) PA, (2) eating behavior, (3) social and (4) intimate relationships. Participants are asked to wear an accelerometer and complete questionnaires measuring HRQoL (SF-36), social adjustment, eating behavior and body esteem, pre-surgery and 6, 12 and 24 months post-surgery. Planned analysis includes intention to treat and per protocol analysis on differences between intervention and control group. Trial registration number: ISRCTN16417174.

    Results: We recruited 259 women (156 intervention and 103 controls). Mean BMI was 40.9 ± 4.7, mean SF36 score was 42.1 ± 9.5 (physical component summary score) and 45.8 ± 11.1 (mental component summary score). Mean time spent in moderate to vigorous PA was 28.8 ± 19.4 min/day and sedentary was 458.3 ± 100.4 min/day.

    Conclusions: This trial aims to improve outcomes after RYGB. If the intervention is effective, implementation within the Swedish health care system is possible within the near future.

  • 233.
    Sellberg, Fanny
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, K9, Social Medicin, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Willmer, Mikaela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Tynelius, Per
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, K9, Social Medicin, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Sellberg etal.BMCSurgery (2017) 17:133 Page 6 of 7 Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berglind, Daniel
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, K9, Social Medicin, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Four years' follow-up changes of physical activity and sedentary time in women undergoing roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and appurtenant children2017In: BMC Surgery, ISSN 1471-2482, E-ISSN 1471-2482, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Objectively measured levels of physical activity (PA) in patients undergoing Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) surgery remain essentially unchanged from before to one year after surgery. Effects from RYGB on objectively measured levels of PA among women undergoing RYGB and appurtenant children beyond one year post-surgery are unknown. The aim of the present study was to objectively assess longitudinal changes in PA and sedentary time (ST), among women undergoing RYGB and appurtenant children, from three months before to nine and 48 months after maternal surgery.

    METHODS: Thirty women undergoing RYGB and 40 children provided anthropometric measures during home visits and valid accelerometer assessed (Actigraph GT3X+) PA data, three months before and nine and 48 months after maternal RYGB surgery.

    RESULTS: Women undergoing RYGB decreased time spent in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) with 2.0 min/day (p = 0.65) and increased ST with 14.4 min/day (p = 0.35), whereas their children decreased time spent in MVPA with 13.2 min/day (p = 0.04) and increased ST with 110.5 min/day (p < 0.001), from three months before to 48 months after maternal surgery. Twenty, 27 and 33% of women, and 60, 68 and 35% of children reached current PA guidelines three months before and nine and 48 months after maternal RYGB, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Objectively measured PA in women remains unchanged, while appurtenant children decrease time spent in MVPA and increase ST, from three months before through nine and 48 months after maternal RYGB. The majority of both women undergoing RYGB and children are insufficiently active 48 months after maternal RYGB.

  • 234.
    Silén, Marit
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Johansson, Linda
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, Institute of Gerontology/Department of Nursing, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Aims and theoretical frameworks in nursing students' Bachelor's theses in Sweden: a descriptive study2016In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 37, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nursing students' independent projects in Sweden not only provide an opportunity to receive a professional qualification as a nurse but also gain a Bachelor's degree in nursing. The aim of these projects is to demonstrate knowledge and understanding within the major field of the education. Objectives: This study aimed to describe and analyze the topics as well as theoretical frameworks and concepts in nursing students' independent projects, which lead to a Bachelor's degree, in a Swedish context. Design: A total of 491 independent projects, written by nursing students in Sweden, were included in the study. Methods: Topics together with theoretical frameworks and concepts in the projects were identified. Similar topics and theoretical frameworks and concepts, respectively, were grouped into subcategories, and similar subcategories were then merged into a main category. The number of entries in each category was counted for descriptive statistics in order to allow for the demonstration of magnitude. Results: The most common topics concerned experiences and managing when having an illness, experiences of care and of being a caregiver, and healthcare staff's care and knowledge. The nursing theories/models that were most often used were Eriksson's Theory of Caritative Caring, Travelbee's Human-to-Human Relationship Model, and Orem's Self-care Theory. Among the non-nursing theories/models, perspectives and concepts lifeworld, ethical values and principles, existential concepts and quality of life/health-related quality of life, were most often used by these students. Conclusion: There may be some difficulty in finding a topic for the project that is relevant for both a professional qualification as a nurse, as well as for achieving the requirements of a Bachelor's degree in nursing. The study indicates that there is a need to widen the student's understanding of different nursing theories/perspectives/models/concepts during nursing education so that students are familiar with a broad range of these when conducting their independent project.

  • 235.
    Silén, Marit
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Svantesson, Mia
    Örebro universitet.
    James, Inger
    Örebro universitet.
    What is discussed during Swedish moral case deliberartion sessions?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 236.
    Sjöberg, Fredric
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Schönning, Emil
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Nurses' experiences of performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation in intensive care units: a qualitative study2015In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 24, no 17-18, p. 2522-2528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives: To describe the nurses' experiences of performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation in intensive care units.

    Background: Research in the area of resuscitation is primarily concentrated on medical and biophysical aspects. The subjective experiences of those who perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation and their emotions are more seldom addressed. Design: Qualitative descriptive design.

    Methods: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were used (n = 8). Data were analysed with content analysis.

    Results: Three categories describe the experiences of nurses: training and precardiopulmonary resuscitation; chaos and order during cardiopulmonary resuscitation; and debriefing postcardiopulmonary resuscitation. The study results indicate that the health care staff find it necessary to practice cardiopulmonary resuscitation, as it provides them with a basic feeling of security when applying it in actual situations.

    Conclusion: We argue that postcardiopulmonary resuscitation debriefing must be viewed in the light of its eigenvalue with a specific focus on the staff's experiences and emotions, and not only on the intention of identifying errors.

    Relevance to clinical practice: Debriefing is of the utmost importance for the nurses. Clinical leaders may make use of the findings of this study to introduce debriefing forums as a possible standard clinical procedure. 

  • 237.
    Sjölund, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Mamhidir, Anna-Greta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Pain prevalence among residents living in nursing homes and factors associated with quality of life and well-being2017In: Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 238.
    Sjölund, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Aging Research Center (ARC), Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wimo, Anders
    Division of Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Aging Research Center (ARC), Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    von Strauss, Eva
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden; Aging Research Center (ARC), Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Incidence of ADL Disability in Older Persons, Physical Activities as a Protective Factor and the Need for Informal and Formal Care: Results from the SNAC-N Project2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 9, article id e0138901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine 1) the incidence of disability in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), in persons 78 years and older 2) explore whether being physical active earlier is a significant predictor of being disability free at follow-up and 3) describe the amount of informal and formal care in relation to ADL-disability.

    METHODS: Data were used from a longitudinal community-based study in Nordanstig (SNAC-N), a part of the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care (SNAC). To study objectives 1) and 2) all ADL-independent participants at baseline (N = 307) were included; for objective 3) all participants 78 years and older were included (N = 316). Data were collected at baseline and at 3- and 6-year follow-ups. ADL-disability was defined as a need for assistance in one or more activities. Informal and formal care were measured using the Resource utilization in Dementia (RUD)-instrument.

    RESULTS: The incidence rates for men were similar in the age groups 78-81and 84 years and older, 42.3 vs. 42.5/1000 person-years. For women the incidence rate for ADL-disability increased significantly from the age group 78-81 to the age group 84 years and older, 20.8 vs.118.3/1000 person-years. In the age group 78-81 years, being physically active earlier (aOR 6.2) and during the past 12 month (aOR 2.9) were both significant preventive factors for ADL-disability. Both informal and formal care increased with ADL-disability and the amount of informal care was greater than formal care. The incidence rate for ADL-disability increases with age for women and being physically active is a protective factor for ADL-disability.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence rate for ADL-disability increases with age for women, and being physical active is a protective factor for ADL-disability.

  • 239.
    Skytt, Bernice
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mamhidir, Anna-Greta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A longitudinal qualitative study of health care personnel’s perceptions of simultaneous implementation of three risk assessment scales on falls, malnutrition and pressure ulcers2016In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 25, no 13/14, p. 1912-1922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives

    In this study, the aim was to understand health care personnel's expectations and experiences of participating in an intervention aimed at the implementation of three assessment scales for fall injuries, malnutrition and pressure ulcers, and the performance of preventive measures in these areas over the period of 18 months.

    Background

    Fall injuries, malnutrition and pressure ulcers among older people are challenging issues for caregivers at different levels in the health care system.

    Design

    A descriptive design with a qualitative approach was used to follow health care personnel before, during and after implementation of a care prevention intervention.

    Methods

    Twelve health care personnel with different professions at the hospital, primary care and municipal care levels participated in a preventive care introduction. Seminars were held at four occasions, with assignments to be completed between seminars. Lectures and group discussions were performed, and three risk assessment scales were introduced. The participants were interviewed before, during and after the introduction. Manifest and latent content analysis were used.

    Results

    The main results are presented in the theme ‘Patient needs are visualised through a gradually developed shared understanding’ and in five categories. The work approach of performing three risk assessments simultaneously was perceived as positive and central to ensuring quality of care; it was not, however, perceived as unproblematic.

    Conclusion

    The participants as well as health care team members showed a positive attitude towards and described the advantages of being given opportunities for shared understanding to improve patient safety and to provide structure for the provision of good care.

    Relevance to clinical practice

    The managerial approach of listening to and acting on issues stressed by health care personnel is important to ensure ongoing and future improvement initiatives.

  • 240.
    Skytt, Bernice
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hagerman, Heidi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    First-line managers' descriptions and reflections regarding their staff's access to empowering structures2015In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1003-1010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To elucidate first-line managers' descriptions and reflections regarding their staff's access to empowering structures using Kanter's theory of structural empowerment. Background: Good structural conditions within workplaces are essential to employees' wellbeing, and their ability to access empowerment structures is largely dependent on the management. Method: Twenty-eight first-line managers in elderly care were interviewed. Deductive qualitative content analysis was used to analyse data. Results: Managers perceived that staff had varying degrees of access to the empowering structures described in Kanter's theory - and that they possessed formal power in their roles as contact persons and representatives. The descriptions mostly started from the managers' own actions, although some started from the needs of staff members. Conclusion: All managers described their staff's access to the empowering structures in Kanter's theory as important, yet it seemed as though this was not always reflected on and discussed as a strategic issue. Implications for nursing management: Managers could make use of performance and appraisal dialogues to keep up to date on staff's access to empowering structures. Recurrent discussions in the management group based on such current information could promote staff's access to power through empowering structures and make job definitions a strategic issue in the organisation.

  • 241.
    Slaviero, Louice
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Martinsson, Anna-Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Att beskriva hur personer med inflammatorisk tarmsjukdom upplever sin livssituation: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    : Ulcerative colitis and morbus crohn are chronic diseases and are known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Diseases occur in episodes, where the symptoms may include frequent diarrhea, fatigue and nausea. Aim: The aim of this literature study is to describe how people with inflammatory bowel disease experience their life situation and to describe the selection methods of the included articles. Method: This literature study has a descriptive design incorporating ten articles, all collected from the PubMed and Cinahl databases. Eight of the articles were qualitative and two was quantitative, all published 2007-2017. The results in the included articles were processed, the similarities and differences between them was compiled and compared. Differences and similarities in the methodological aspect selection method were examined in the articles. Result: In the result, seven headings appeared; Support from the environment, Fatigue, Importance of diet, Importance of good planning, The importance of care, Treatment and side effects and Methodological aspect - Selection method.

    Support from educated healthcare professionals and close relatives is seen as a positive aspect, while the absence of an overall perspective from a healthcare perspective can contribute to a negativity towards healthcare. Diet can be a contributing factor to a limitation of everyday life as well as a barrier in social contexts. Fatigue is described as one of the primary symptoms of IBD, which affects both the patient and its environment, extreme fatigue can be burdensome for the individual and adversely affect family life.

    Conclusion:

    Individuals experience their life situation as limited because of the disease, both regarding physical, psychological and social aspects. Support can be a crucial factor in achieving well-being.

  • 242.
    Stenberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Catrin
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Furuland, Hans
    Department of Medical Sciences, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Perspectives on clinical use of bioimpedance in hemodialysis: focus group interviews with renal care professionals.2018In: BMC Nephrology, ISSN 1471-2369, E-ISSN 1471-2369, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Inadequate volume control may be a main contributor to poor survival and high mortality in hemodialysis patients. Bioimpedance measurement has the potential to improve fluid management, but several dialysis centers lack an agreed fluid management policy, and the method has not yet been implemented. Our aim was to identify renal care professionals' perceived barriers and facilitators for use of bioimpedance in clinical practice.

    METHODS: Qualitative data were collected through four focus group interviews with 24 renal care professionals: dieticians, nephrologists and nurses, recruited voluntarily from a nation-wide selection of hemodialysis centers, having access to a bioimpedance-device. The participants were connected to each other and a moderator via equipment for telemedicine and the sessions were recorded. The interviews were semi-structured, focusing on the participants' perceptions of use of bioimpedance in clinical practice. Thematic content analysis was performed in consecutive steps, and data were extracted by employing an inductive, interactive, comparative process.

    RESULTS: Several barriers and facilitators to the use of bioimpedance in clinical practice were identified, and a multilevel approach to examining barriers and incentives for change was found to be applicable to the ideas and categories that arose from the data. The determinants were categorized on five levels, and the different themes of the levels illustrated with quotations from the focus groups participants.

    CONCLUSIONS: Determinants for use of bioimpedance were identified on five levels: 1) the innovation itself, 2) the individual professional, 3) the patient, 4) the social context and 5) the organizational context. Barriers were identified in the areas of credibility, awareness, knowledge, self-efficacy, care processes, organizational structures and regulations. Facilitators were identified in the areas of the innovation's attractiveness, advantages in practice, and collaboration. Motivation, team processes and organizational capacities appeared as both barriers and facilitators.

  • 243.
    Stenberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Furuland, Hans
    Department of Medical Sciences, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Clinical praxis for assessment of dry weight in Sweden and Denmark: a mixed-methods study2016In: Hemodialysis International, ISSN 1492-7535, E-ISSN 1542-4758, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 111-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overhydration is an independent predictor of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. More than 30% of HD patients are overhydrated, motivating the development of new methods for assessing hydration status. This study surveyed clinical praxis and local guidelines for dry weight (DW) assessment in Swedish and Danish HD units, and examined if differences in routines and utilization of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) and other assistive technology affected frequency of DW adjustments and blood pressure (BP) levels. Cross-sectional information on praxis, guidelines and routines, plus treatment-related data from 99 stratified patients were collected. Qualitative data were analyzed with content analysis and interpreted in convergence with statistical analysis of quantitative data in a mixed-methods design. Local guidelines concerning DW existed in 54% of the units. A BIS device was present in 52%, but only half of those units used it regularly, and no correlations to frequency of DW adjustments or BP were found. HD nurses were authorized to adjust DW in 60% of the units; in these units, the frequency of DW adjustments was 1.6 times higher and systolic BP pre-HD 8 mmHg lower. There is a wide variation in routines for DW determination, and there are indications that authorization of HD nurses to adjust DW may improve DW assessment. BIS is sparsely used; its implementation may have been delayed by uncertainty over how to manage the device and interpret measurements. Hence, better methods and guidelines for assessing DW and using BIS need to be developed.

  • 244.
    Ström, Joel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Intensivvårdssjuksköterskors uppfattning och bedömning av IVA-delirium i jämförelse med bedömning av sederingsdjup: en kvantitativ studie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background.

    Patients, who are receiving life-threatening treatment at the intensive care unit (ICU), often suffer from failure in their vital organs. Supporting treatement of their organs is a important part of the work in the ICU.  An overlooked complication in these patients is cognitive failure due to critical illness, also known as ICU-delirium. Research studies show that patients with ICU-delirium have increased care time and increased mortality.

    Aims

    The aim of this study was to describe the intensive care nurse's perception of and how ICU-delirium is assessed. The aim was also to compare how often assessment of ICU-delirium occurs with the frequency of assessment of sedation depth.

    Results

    45 intensive care nurses responded that ICU delirium requires active measures from healthcare professionals. 43 considered that ICU delirium is a common response to the environment in an intensive care unit. Some (n= 40) indicated that their department has a routine regarding sedation, but 21 states that the protocol does not specify how often ICU delirium is to be assessed. The most common method for assessing ICU delirium was to see if the patient can follow instructions (n= 19) and if the patient has an outgoing behavior (n = 10). 42 indicated that ICU delirium is an under-diagnosed problem and 40 that it is a challenge to assess the patient. The study showed a significant difference (p = .0001) between how often intensive care nurses assess sedation depth and how often ICU delirium is assessed.

    Conclusions. The conclusion is that sedation assessment is performed more often than assessment of ICU-delirium. More education in the subject and more in-depth research is recommended.

  • 245.
    Sundbom Thunander, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Bingefors, Kerstin
    Department of Pharmacy, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Isacson, Dag
    Department of Pharmacy, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Self-reported depression and prescription of antidepressants: Does gender matter?2015In: Value in Health, ISSN 1098-3015, E-ISSN 1524-4733, Vol. 18, no 3, p. A116-, article id PMH12Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES

    Women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men. Concerning self-reported depression though, gender differences are not that distinct. Prescription of antidepressants (ADs) has increased considerably the past decades, especially for women. This study aimed to examine gender differences in self-reported depression and the relation to prescribed ADs and also in the prescription of various types of ADs.

    METHODS

    Data from the population-based cross-sectional survey “Public Health in Sweden 2012” was used (n=16,000 aged 18-84 years, response rate 49.3%). Symptoms of depression were measured with the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS, cut-off score ≥8). Self-reported use of ADs two weeks prior to receiving the questionnaire was supplemented with prescription data (ATC-codes) from the national Swedish Prescribed Drug Register.

    RESULTS

    Men and women reported depression to similar extent (men 12.3%, women 11.2%). However, women were more often prescribed ADs compared to men (men 3.7%, women 6.8%; p<0.0001). Nine per cent of all women in the study population reported depression but had no AD treatment, 2.1% reporting depression and used ADs, and 4.7% used ADs but reported no depression. The corresponding figures for men were 10.8%, 1.5% and 2.2% (p<0.0001). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, N06AB) were the most commonly prescribed ADs for both men (74.8%) and women (79.2%). As for the SSRIs, no statistical significant gender difference was found for the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, N06AA; men 9.5%, women 6.7%). However, men were prescribed “Other ADs” (N06AX) significantly more often than women (men 43.3%, women 29.2%; p<0.005).

    CONCLUSIONS

    Although women and men reported depression to similar extent, women were prescribed ADs almost twice as often as men. Also, women used ADs without being currently depressed more often than men. Further, men were prescribed “Other ADs” more frequently than women.

  • 246.
    Sundin, Ida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Koplik, Ida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av mastektomi till följd av en bröstcancerdiagnos2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 247.
    Sundin, Rakel
    et al.
    Caring Sciences, Municipality in Söderhamn, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Section of Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Waage-Andrée, Rebecca
    Department of Endocrinology, Gävle Hospital, Gävle, Sweden.
    Björn, Catrine
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Section of Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden; Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nurses’ Perceptions of Patient Safety in Community Mental Health Settings: A Qualitative Study2015In: Open Journal of Nursing, ISSN 2162-5336, E-ISSN 2162-5344, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 387-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health care has moved from hospital settings to community mental health settings, and there is a need to explore the perceptions of patient safety among registered nurses working in this field. Patient safety is to include everyone and to be the goal in all aspects of health care. The aim of the study was to explore registered nurses’ perceptions of patient safety in community mental health settings for people with serious mental illness. The study was qualitative and descriptive in nature and interviews were carried out during spring 2012, with seven registered nurses working in community mental health settings for people with serious mental illness in five municipalities in the middle of Sweden. The sampling was purposive and data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings showed that the registered nurses understood patient safety as providing support to people with serious mental illness in regaining and maintaining health through good treatment and respecting self-determination and avoiding coercion. The terms of daily living in small community mental health settings within the a large community health care organization, communication, sufficient knowledge of psychiatric disabilities among people in the residents’ network, and national laws and regulations, all had implications for patient safety. The registered nurses perceived patient safety as involving a wide range of issues that in other areas of care are more often discussed in terms of quality of care. Determining the boundaries of patient safety in community mental health settings for people with serious mental illness can be a first step in establishing workable routines that ensure safe patient care.

  • 248.
    Sunnvius, Louise
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Angermund, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Mammors tillit till sin förmåga att amma2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of breastfeeding mothers is reducing in Sweden, a contributing factor to the decrease can be the lack of confidence in their ability to breastfeed. It is important to identify mothers with low confidence in their ability to breastfeed in order to make it possible to reverse the declining number of breastfeeding mothers, and for the primary care nurse to strengthen the woman in the role of a breastfeeding mother.

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to describe and compare mothers’ confidence in their ability to breastfeed.

    Method: With the survey, the breastfeeding self-efficacy scale - short form (BSES-SF) that measures trust in its ability to breastfeed, data was collected to identify mothers with low or high confidence.

    Results: The mothers’ of the age groups 18-25 years and 35-45 years, regardless of the age of the child, estimated the lowest confidence in their ability to breastfeed that they could always perform each breastfeeding in a satisfactory manner. The highest ranked trust of all mothers, regardless of their own age or child's age, was that they could always come to the conclusion that they would want continue to breastfeed. Mothers who breastfeed children in the higher age group, 10 weeks (w) – 17 w + 6 days (d), estimated in total according to BSES-SF, their confidence in breastfeeding significantly higher than mothers who breastfeed children between 0 w – 9 w + 6 d.

    Conclusion: The mothers’ in this study who breastfeed babies between 10 w – 17 w + 6 d estimate their ability to breastfeed higher than the mothers who breastfeed children between 0 w – 9 w + 6 d.

  • 249.
    Svantesson, Mia
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; University of Warwick, Coventry, West Midlands, England.
    Silén, Marit
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden.
    James, Inger
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    It’s not all about moral reasoning: Understanding the complex content of Moral Case Deliberation2018In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 212-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Moral Case Deliberation is one form of clinical ethics support described as a facilitator-led collective moral reasoning by healthcare professionals on a concrete moral question connected to their practice. Evaluation research is needed, but, as human interaction is difficult to standardise, there is a need to capture the content beyond moral reasoning. This allows for a better understanding of Moral Case Deliberation, which may contribute to further development of valid outcome criteria and stimulate the normative discussion of what Moral Case Deliberation should contain.

    Objective:

    To explore and compare the content beyond moral reasoning in the dialogue in Moral Case Deliberation at Swedish workplaces.

    Methods:

    A mixed-methods approach was applied for analysing audio-recordings of 70 periodic Moral Case Deliberation meetings at 10 Swedish workplaces. Moral Case Deliberation facilitators and various healthcare professions participated, with registered nurses comprising the majority.

    Ethical considerations:

    No objection to the study was made by an Ethical Review Board. After oral and written information was provided, consent to be recorded was assumed by virtue of participation.

    Findings:

    Other than ‘moral reasoning’ (median (md): 45% of the spoken time), the Moral Case Deliberations consisted of ‘reflections on the psychosocial work environment’ to a varying extent (md: 29%). Additional content comprised ‘assumptions about the patient’s psychosocial situation’ (md: 6%), ‘facts about the patient’s situation’ (md: 5%), ‘concrete problem-solving’ (md: 6%) and ‘process’ (md: 3%).

    Conclusion:

    The findings suggest that a restorative function of staff’s wellbeing in Moral Case Deliberation is needed, as this might contribute to good patient care. This supports outcome criteria of improved emotional support, which may include relief of moral distress. However, facilitators need a strategy for how to proceed from the participants’ own emotional needs and to develop the use of their emotional knowing to focus on the ethically difficult patient situation.

  • 250.
    Svennberg, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Who gains?: Sociological parameters for obtaining high grades in physical education2018In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 48-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors contributing to higher grades in Swedish physical education (PE) by analysing register data from the Swedish National Agency for Education for all students graduating from compulsory school in 2014 (n = 95,317). The results show that the chances of gaining a high grade in PE are affected by (in decreasing order) migration background, parents? education, attending an independent or a municipally operated school and gender, and that this also holds true after controlling for the other background factors. The results also show that PE grade differences between boys and girls are bigger in the group that moved to Sweden after school start than in the group that had lived in Sweden since school start. In addition, the results point to substantial inequalities between students with a combination of the highest odds and those with a combination of the lowest odds. Bernstein?s concept of the pedagogic device is used to discuss ways of understanding what knowledge becomes valued in PE and which groups have better possibilities to assimilate this valued knowledge.

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